They will spit: In the tradition of Miriam, Jewish women will continue to challenge the establishment

Miriam and Aaron complain against Moses, engraving from The Bible and Its Story Taught by One Thousand Picture Lessons, vol. 2 , edited by Charles F. Horne and Julius A. Bewer, published by Francis R. Niglutsch, New York, 1908.

The ultra-orthodox establishment in Israel is reportedly losing sleep over women’s demands for equality. While the conflict has serious socio-political implications for national survival, I find myself haunted by one detail of the men’s reprehensible behavior. I am focused on the act of spitting as a particularly loaded expression of men’s disdain for non-compliant women.

We need look no further than the Book of Numbers, Chapter 12 to find a precedent for this unsavory form of daughter censure. When Miriam objects to her brother Moses’ exclusive leadership, God’s anger flares up against her. To show the uppity lady who’s who, God smites her with skin-corroding leprosy. Moses asks that his sister Miriam be healed of her disease and God responds, “ve’avee’ha yarok, yarak” … “if her father had spit,” continuing with “would she not be shamed for seven days?” Miriam speaks out in protest; her heavenly father metaphorically spits in her face. Despite Moses’ plea, (not to mention Aaron’s consequence-free collusion) now she has the corroded skin of a leper. Miriam the upstart must be excluded from the people of Israel for seven days before she can show her insubordinate face again.

When I first came across this almost casual reference to an apparently familiar custom of fathers spitting in their daughters’ faces, it sounded all my alarm buttons. With no discernible discomfort, our commentators agree that in the ancient Near East spitting is one of the most humiliating of disgraces, long considered a suitable response to reprehensible behavior. But there is no outrage about God’s invoking this paternal practice to justify his own treatment of Miriam. In this context, I must presume that spitting in a daughter’s face is relatively routine, something a man might well have seen his own father do to, say, his sister when they were both children. Very possibly, his mother endured the same at the whimsy of her father when she was a girl. When a man, or a father or a God with religious authority spits, cherchez la femme ("look for the woman") who provoked it.

And wherein lies the injustice? After all, a disenfranchised Miriam speaks out of turn. A provocative Miriam questions Moses’ choice. Moses is a great and humble man. Moses is chosen by God for exclusive leadership. Though it may be but metaphor, God spits in Miriam’s face much as an irate father would do and Miriam is clawing at her flaking skin.

Ve’avee’ha yarok, yarak…. The action is hypothetical (“if her father had spit”) but the text repeats the verb for spit twice –yarok, yarak or spit, he did spit - assuring us this was to be no accidental emission. If this kind of projectile is not launched impetuously, then it must be calmly premeditated: Let the saliva rise like sap, then ingather, savor, swoosh, ready, take aim and fire. What follows is a daughter’s shame; the ejaculating papa is aiming to demean.

The opening chapter of Exodus, read this week, brings us to a very different place. Pharoah’s plan to wipe out the Jewish people is thwarted by two courageous midwives who refuse to dispose of Jewish newborn boys according to decree. Atypically, these two heroines are identified by name – Shifrah and Puah. And it turns out, one Midrash tells us, that Puah is none other than a defiant young Miriam in disguise.

Puah means the confrontational face and we are reminded that Miriam is a young girl who has been defying male decrees ever since childhood. Earlier on she confronted her own father, a tribal leader named Amram, who decided that under the genocidal circumstances, no man should cohabitate with his wife and thus “beget children for nothing.” The girl-child Miriam lets her father know that his decree is even more dire than Pharoah’s, thereby convincing Amram to relent and remarry his wife. Amram does so, inspiring all the other Hebrew men to do the same.

Miriam’s activism assures that the Hebrew nation does not die out. Even so, Miriam’s repudiation of her dad is not fully welcome. The code-name Puah singles her out as an agitator, a non-compliant woman to be identified by her confrontational face. The uplifted face that challenges male leadership in Numbers is the very same face that her criticized father might have, could have, and possibly should have spat upon when she questioned his leadership in the past. Despite her assurance of national survival, hers is a face that risks disdain.

So then, the fringe behavior in Beit Shemesh is not without a cultural context, arguably, it can even claim a Biblical precedent. But Miriam’s story confirms that women’s confrontation of the ruling establishment is just as vital a part of our tradition. Moshe Halbertal is quoted in the New York Times as saying that in Israel today, feminism is the issue that most threatens the male religious authority, posing “an immense ideological and moral challenge that touches at the core of life.”

So then, spit, they will spit and Miriam-Puah will increasingly lift up her face in defiance along with women both in Israel and around the world. The hope is that once we wipe off the adversary’s spittle, we can move beyond polarization to an inclusive strategy for shared survival.

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I was shocked at the spitting on a daughter’s face…and to what end, I thought. Surely God is not in error. Surely I need only to think on His intent. You said it was “ejaculating to demean”. If God is seen as our Father in heaven, and He means that while on earth our earthly father needs to take measure in its present culture, following a pattern designed in Israel at that time, SHAMING a daughter for 7 days (complete shame) that she can then be returned to the family or with Israel returned from outside the camp as with the leper, cleansed of her illness. Perhaps I am not reading you correctly but “ejaculation for shame”….those are not words defining God’s way instructed for man to follow…today, I don’t know how this plays out. To shame our children for example is not done the same way. That I am thankful for. But there is a chastisement that is of God…it doesn’t demean, it does not hurt, it is to bring man into a repentant heart.

Very well written.
I have 2 daughters and with one of them who had a child from a young man, she had an altercation with him. He apparently spat in her face and believe me that was the last time he did that.
In these passages of scripture it seems that men instituted a custom which was not necessarily based in Gods will. God simply repeats what there custom has been but implements his own consequence.
Also to note Miriam was offended at Moses marrying a black woman not necessarily issues with leadership.

Kind regards

Tim from London

I looked this up because I wanted to see why Yeshua mixed spit with dirt to make clay to put on the eyes of the man born blind. He (the blind man) was then told to go wash in the pool of Siloam (sent) and his eyes were opened. It makes sense to me now he is showing the spit opened her eyes so she could see what her emotions, thoughts and actions were doing to her. The Father (Creator) is in us and our very life force I can choose a positive charge or negative charge ;) If His loving kindness is everlasting then the spitting in Myriam's eyes wasn't to smite but to open her eyes so she could repent and be healed.

In reply to by Jennifer Helt

Wow, wonderful observation/revelation. I was reading the text this morning and trying to make sense of the spitting symbolism so started researching Jewish traditions. So glad I read your comment. It is very insightful and filled with the true heart of Christ!

In reply to by Jennifer Helt

Awesome revelation! You got it right.

Numbers 12;1 "And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Cushite woman whom he had married; for he had married a Cushite woman." This incident is about racism. Also, according to our sages - leprosy is the punishment for slander.

Sure if you believe in supernatural turning of people into metzorote not leprosy. Do you only look for proof texts for you feminist games?

Try a non-magic understanding of the situation. Miriam had the tumah before the questioning of Moshehs authority. Miriam was looking for a pretext to proclaim that she, even as a metzorah, should be able to stay in the camp. She seemed to have hidden it well until this point. But YHWH was having none of it. Aaron seems to have not known much of anything. Before it even got off the ground the challenge to authority was revealed to only the three and then the metzorah of Miriam revealed. She had had it for awhile. There was no magic poof. The separation in the text may show that she was likely in the process of healing or completely covered with something else. She would need, according to Torah, to remain outside the camp seven days to prove it was gone or to diagnose it as not tzaarat at all.

I suppose a smack upside the face is never warranted to male or female? Perhaps sons were struck and daughters were spat upon. Maybe honor killing has replaced spitting.

Miriam did not protest against Moses, she protested against God, who appropriately spat in her face. God was her Father. God's humiliating custom of spitting in faces has continued to this day and it is described in the Book of Revelation. God will soon spit in the face of His lukewarm end-time bride-to-be (or Church) (Revelation 3:16). Her offensive behavior is not that she stands up to leaders, but that she does not stand up to leaders. By the way, Miriam was a racist and an ego maniac, so she deserved to be spat upon for more than one offense.

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How to cite this page

Reimer-Torn, Susan. "They will spit: In the tradition of Miriam, Jewish women will continue to challenge the establishment." 19 January 2012. Jewish Women's Archive. (Viewed on April 19, 2024) <>.