World War II

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Liudmila Ulitskaia

Liudmila Ulitskaia is one of the best and most popular representatives of contemporary Russian realist prose; her works combine traditional plot and narrative techniques with an unusually candid treatment of conventionally taboo subjects such as sexuality and disease as well as previously censored topics in Russian history and religion.

Turkey: Ottoman and Post Ottoman

In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, far-reaching changes took place in the Ottoman Empire in the political, social and geopolitical spheres.

Jennie Tourel

Jennie Tourel is universally regarded as one of the most distinguished vocalists of her time.

Zelda Nisanilevich Treger

Zelda Treger belonged to the Nekamah (Vengeance) battalion, the Jewish unit under the command of Abba Kovner (1918–1987). As a courier, she was continuously sent to the city to obtain weapons, medicines, information on the army’s movements and even on rescue missions from the labor camp. Together with her fellow partisans, Treger participated in the liberation of Vilna.

Nechama Tec

Nechama Tec's sociological work, informed by her experience as a Holocaust survivor, addresses the silences and inaccuracies surrounding the Holocaust and reveals untold stories of righteousness and rescue.

Olga Taussky-Todd

Olga Taussky-Todd's work and passion helped shape matrix theory and draw other talented mathematicians to its development.

Sara Szweber

Sara Szweber personified the symbiotic combination of political activism and professional engagement that was so very important for the Bund. Her early practical experience as the head of a cooperatively organized dressmaking workshop predestined her for her later work as a union leader. This gave her an almost unique status among the women of the legally operating party of the interwar period.

Bela Szapiro

Before World War II, Lublin was one of the largest Jewish communities in Poland. Bela Szapiro’s activities contributed to making it the vibrant cultural and political center of Polish Jewry that it was.

Eva Szekely

Olympic medalist Eva Szekely was born on April 3, 1927, in Budapest, Hungary. Between 1946 and 1954 Eva Szekely won thirty-two national individual swimming titles and eleven national team titles. In 1954 she gave birth to a daughter, Andrea (Gyarmati), who also became an Olympic medalist swimmer.

Hannah Szenes (Senesh)

One of the more poignant songs included in many Holocaust memorial convocations held in Israel, is a short poem, set to music, known popularly as “Eli, Eli.” The four-line poem, actually entitled “Walking to Caesarea,” was written by one of the more mythological figures in contemporary Jewish and Israeli history, Hannah Szenes, whose short life and death have propelled her into the pantheon of Zionist history.

Tema Sznajderman

The real heroes of the Holocaust period are mostly those who did not survive, remained little known and had no myths built around them. One such person was Tema Sznajderman, also known by her Aryan name of Wanda Majewska, one of the first couriers and an especially brave one.

Nettie Sutro-Katzenstein

Dr. Nettie Sutro was “mother” to nearly ten thousand Jewish refugee children in Switzerland during the years 1933–1948. To help these children, she founded and headed the Schweizer Hilfswerk fur Emigrantenkinder (SHEK), a non-denominational Swiss women’s organization that cared for refugee children, both Jewish and non-Jewish, in Paris and in Switzerland.

Margarete Susman

A writer whose works span the bridge between literature and theory, Margarete Susman's writings are as heterogeneous as her interests.

Suburbanization in the United States

Few Jews participated in the first wave of suburbanization during the final decades of the nineteenth century. Today, suburbs are the popular residential choice of most Americans. Despite their increasing diversity, they still lack the population density, poverty, and public culture of urban centers.

Eva Michaelis Stern

Eva Michaelis Stern was the co-founder and director of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Kinder und Jugendalijah, the fund-raising arm of Youth Aliyah in Germany, during the 1930s, and director of the Youth Aliyah office in London during the critical years of World War II. After her retirement from Youth Aliyah, she devoted twenty years to caring for the mentally handicapped in Israel.

Grete Stern

Grete Stern, who started her career in the European avant-garde of the late 1920s, produced her major body of work in Argentina, where her modern and different style placed her among the founders of Argentina’s modern photography.

Lina Solomonovna Stern (Shtern)

The eminent physiologist and biochemist Lina Solomonovna Stern's curriculum vitae is testimony to her vigor and her incredible energy and immense working ability.

Hannah Stein

Hannah Stein’s life was devoted to advocating for the rights of disadvantaged women and their children. She served for 14 years as the executive director of the National Council of Jewish Women and worked in cooperation with other advocacy groups such as the National Council of Negro Women and the United Church Women to establish the Women in Community Service (WICS) coalition.

Mollie Steimer

Mollie Steimer, a leading anarchist and advocate for the rights of political prisoners, was a codefendant in one of the most publicized antiradical trials in American history.

Sports in Germany: 1898-1938

From the 1890s, despite fierce resistance, German women increasingly participated in gymnastics, games and other sporting activities.

Dora Spiegel

Dora Spiegel rendered distinguished service in many fields: in the organization of league sisterhoods, in education, and in publications that stimulated women’s loyalty to the synagogue and the Jewish home. She helped found the Women’s Institute of Jewish Studies at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America and influenced the lives of countless Jewish women and children.

Eva Sopher

The first known cultural entrepreneur in southern Brazil, German-born Eva Sopher has fostered music, dance, and especially theater in Porto Alegre and its environs for over forty years.

Cecila Slepak

Cecila Slepak was a journalist and translator who lived in Warsaw. Slepak was a member of an intellectual elite immersed in secular Jewish culture and also integrated into Polish culture, who took a realistic and critical view of the Jewish community and of the conduct of individual Jews.

Simone Simon

In life as on the screen, Simone Simon remained discreet and mysterious, a powerful yet secretive presence.

Simone Signoret

Simone Signoret's five-decade career of more than sixty films, her Leftist politics, and her unassailable talent in creating not only memorable but iconic female heroes at every stage of her career, give her an important place in twentieth-century cultural history.

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