Israel

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Collection

Ada Ascarelli Sereni

Much of Ada Sereni’s life was spent in the shadow of the heroic figure of her husband Enzo, who died as one of the Jews who parachuted into German-occupied Europe during World War II, but she herself made so noteworthy a contribution to the Zionist enterprise as to win her the 1995 Israel Prize.

Gabriela Shalev

Gabriela Shalev, one of the outstanding Israeli academicians in the field of law, has instructed innumerable students in the intricacies of contract law, on which she has published and lectured in the light of her own analyses and theories.

Alice Hildegard Shalvi

Well known as a public speaker and a social activist, Alice Hildegard Shalvi’s contribution to Jewish education, to Israeli culture and to Jewish feminism has been widely recognized.

Second Aliyah: Women's Experience and Their Role in the Yishuv

The question of women’s identity in Jewish society in general and Yishuv society in particular has attracted some scholarly attention. The majority of the studies offer an approach that depicts the adoption of masculine characteristics by the new Hebrew woman and the excessive admiration for masculine labor as opposed to feminine labor.

Adolphine Schwimmer-Vigeveno

Adolphine Schwimmer-Vigeveno was an active member of the Jewish Women’s Council in the Netherlands in the decades before the outbreak of World War II. She served as the general editor of its periodical and later as its president, stimulating solidarity among Jewish women, organizing Jewish social work, and exploring contemporary Jewish issues, including Zionism.

Alice Schwarz-Gardos

As a journalist, editor and foreign correspondent, Alice Schwarz-Gardos wrote articles for German-language newspapers in Israel and Europe from an explicitly Zionist and patriotic point of view. Besides her journalistic work, Schwarz-Gardos published eleven books in German.

Rina Schenfeld

Rina Schenfeld has choreographed solo and company performances that have been presented on the world’s most important stages. She uses the objects of daily life for her props, tests the limits of their usefulness and creates a poetic world with them.

Faye Libby Schenk

A committed Zionist, Faye Libby Herz Schenk chose to direct her considerable talents and energies into organizing and strengthening Zionist organizations worldwide. Schenk went on to hold every major portfolio in Hadassah and eventually served as national president from 1968 to 1972.

Samaritan Sect

The status of Samaritan women today seems to be dominated by four factors: the dearth of women in the community, the desire of the community to avoid diluting its traditions, genetic problems deriving from inbreeding, and the rules pertaining to ritual purity.

Pnina Salzman

“The first lady of the piano in Israel” and “She is considered the first Israel-born pianist to achieve international fame”—these and similar phrases color many writings about Pnina Salzman, who received the Israel Prize in 2006 for her contribution to the country’s musical life.

Nelly Leonie Sachs

In 1966, Nelly Sachs was recognized as the only German-speaking woman to win the Nobel Prize for Literature, an honor she shared with the Galician-born Israeli novelist Shmuel Yosef Agnon (1888–1970).

Russian Immigrants in Israel

Like their male counterparts, over sixty percent of Soviet Jewish women were highly educated and employed as professionals or white-collar workers. Before emigration, over ninety-five percent of these women combined full-time employment with motherhood and family roles (Tolts, 1997; Buckley, 1997). Beside the need, common to both sexes, for economic and psychosocial adjustment in the new country immigrant women faced specific challenges that reflect cultural differences in sexuality, fertility and family life.

Mathilde Dorothy De Rothschild

Shortly before her eighteenth birthday, Mathilde Dorothy (Dolly) de Rothschild married James de Rothschild (1878–1957) and so moved into a whirl of political, social and Zionist life. When her husband was mobilized into the French army in 1914 Dorothy was left to act as the intermediary between him and his father and Dr. Chaim Weizmann, who was then living in London. Thus she became deeply immersed in all facets of Zionist politics.

Hanna Rovina

In April 1956, when Hanna Rovina was awarded the Israel Prize for Theater Arts, the judges’ comments stressed the central role she had played in the history of Hebrew theater. Throughout her career Rovina acted only with Habimah, apart from one guest performance at the Cameri Theater.

Bethsabée Rothschild

Baroness Bethsabée (Hebrew: Batsheva) de Rothschild, scion of a well-known philanthropic family, was a modest and generous woman with a mighty vision. The foundations she established helped support numerous activities in the United States and Israel, especially dance, music and science.

Gertrude Rosenblatt

On February 24, 1912, a group of approximately thirty young women, who called themselves Bnoth Zion, or the Daughters of Zion, met together at the urging of Henrietta Szold with the intent of founding Hadassah. Gertrude Rosenblatt was one of those women, and on March 7, 1912, when the officers were elected, she became one of the first directors of Hadassah, the Women’s Zionist Organization.

Romanian Yiddish Theater

One facet of the rich Jewish cultural scene that developed in Romania in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries consisted of theatrical activity in its various forms.

Dalia Raz

Dalia Raz enlisted in the IDF in 1955, first serving in the Nahal (Fighting Pioneer Youth), where she was promoted to NCO before proceeding to officer training. In 1957, she was appointed head of personnel in the navy, becoming the only woman ever to serve in this position.

Flora Sophia Clementina Randegger -Friedenberg

Figuring among a precious few accounts left by a Jewish woman of a stay in the Old Yishuv in nineteenth-century Jerusalem, Flora Randegger's journal is also a record of a woman’s attempt to establish an educational project for Jews and especially for Jewish women in Palestine.

Prose Writing in the Yishuv: 1882-1948

An examination of the historiographies of Hebrew literature during the pre-State (Yishuv) period in Palestine (1882–1948) yields little discussion, mapping or classification of the gamut of women writers who authored works of prose during this period.

Politics in the Yishuv and Israel

Women’s status in Israeli political arena has been shaped by two major contradictory forces that operate simultaneously. On the one hand, women are defined as part of the collective and are recognized, treated, and organized as a social category, mainly on the basis of traditional roles as wives and mothers. On the other hand, the politics of identity has been restricted by marginalizing and denouncing social identity as a basis for political action, and thus excludes women.

Political Parties in the Yishuv and Israel

Women’s parties have played a major, though so far unacknowledged, role in the social and political history of Israel: they had a significant impact on women’s participation in power centers, political and others; they played a major part in the struggle for women’s right to vote and to be elected; they brought into focus the economic discrimination against women, who constitute half of the population in the labor market; they made feminist discourse about gender equality widely known and discussed.

Photography in Palestine and Israel: 1900-Present Day

Photography was the primary method used to document the Zionist enterprise in Palestine and photographers assumed the responsibility of creating and expressing its history.

Shoshana Persitz

Shoshana Persitz developed a line of school books and the Zionist library, Ha-Noar (For Youth), which included monographs about Jewish cities, villages and kibbutzim in Palestine and on the Zionist history of the quest to establish a Jewish state in the Land of Israel. Throughout her years in the legislature she chaired the Knesset Education Committee and was instrumental in the passing of the State Education Law (1953), which replaced the schools, previously operated in accordance with various political ideologies, with one state general education system and one state-religious system.

Peace Movements in Israel

After twenty years of activity, the women’s peace movement in Israeli has expanded and become a major actor in the Israeli public sphere.

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