This website is made possible by generous donations from users just like you. $18 helps keep JWA online for one day. As we celebrate Women’s History Month—and Purim and Passover—this month, please consider a gift to JWA today!
Close [x]

You are here

Share Share Share Share Share Share Share


Elisabeth Rozetta Geleerd

It is noteworthy that many early women psychoanalysts from Jewish backgrounds were strongly encouraged by their fathers to pursue their professional aspirations. Elisabeth Rozetta Geleerd, who became a supervisor of several generations of child and adolescent analysts, is a case in point.

Bird Stein Gans

As a young woman of twenty, Bird Stein joined several married women interested in the new field of parent education. This small group formed the Society for the Study of Child Nature in the autumn of 1888. They hoped to cull from scientific sources the knowledge necessary for rearing their children, studying child nature from the psychological, ethical, and physical viewpoints. Gans spent the remainder of her years dedicated to the welfare of parents and their children, not only by promoting the expansion of the society, but by involving herself in many other organizations devoted to enhancing family life.

Betty Friedan

Considered by many as the “mother” of the second wave of modern feminism, activist and writer Betty Friedan was one of the most influential feminist leaders of the second half of the twentieth century, a co-founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW) and its first president. She served on the boards of leading women’s organizations, fought for legislation to ensure women’s equality and wrote books analyzing women’s role in society and the women’s movement.

Anna Freud

Anna Freud's life was also a constant search for useful social applications of psychoanalysis, above all in treating, and learning from, children.

Selma Fraiberg

Selma Fraiberg was a psychoanalyst, author, and pioneer in the field of infant psychiatry.

Paulette Weill Oppert Fink

Paulette joined the Resistance to sabotage the German “war machine” and collaborated with a network of Catholic and Protestant volunteers to hide, and save Jewish children left behind by Polish, Hungarian, Romanian and French Jews when they were deported to the concentration camps.

Family During the Holocaust

Where both the preservation of tradition and the acclimatization to social and cultural change are concerned, Jewish folklore attributes to the family a magic role in shaping the lives of individuals and the community at large. However, academic research on the Jewish family is only in its early stages and information on the Jewish family in Eastern Europe is particularly scarce.


Emunah was founded in 1935 as the Women’s Branch of Ha-Po’el ha-Mizrachi, under the leadership of Tova Sanhedrai-Goldreich, who served the public throughout her life, first as a young woman in Poland, later in Israel, and as the leader of Emunah for more than fifty years. In addition, she served as a member of [jwa_encyclopedia_glossary:345]Knesset[/jwa_encyclopedia_glossary] on behalf of the National Religious Party, as well as Deputy Speaker of the Knesset, from 1961 to 1974 (the fifth, sixth and seventh Knessets). During the 1960s, the Women’s Branch merged with the Mizrachi Women’s Organization to form the National Religious Women’s Organization, which later assumed the name Emunah.

Friedl Dicker-Brandeis

More than half a century after the death of Friedl Dicker-Brandeis, researchers from many countries and from diverse disciplines began to express a new interest in her, focusing respectively on her paintings, furniture and stage designs, and her teaching in Theresienstadt (Terezin), a ghetto established by the Germans in Czechoslovakia.

Demography: Soviet Union, the Russian Federation and other Successor States

Marriage and Divorce. Before World War II the Jewish marriage pattern was rather favorable for fertility. In 1939 one half of the Jewish women aged 20–24 and more than 70 percent of those aged 25–44 in the Russian Federation were currently married. However, in 1959, the percentage of currently married Jewish females below the age of 25 was much lower than it had been in pre-war 1939 (Table 1). This may be seen as an indirect indicator of the rise in age at first marriage between the two censuses, for which we have no direct data.


How to cite this page

Jewish Women's Archive. "Children." (Viewed on March 21, 2018) <>.


Help us elevate the voices of Jewish women.

donate now

The JWA Podcast

listen now

Sign Up for JWA eNews


Discover Education Programs

Join our growing community of educators.

view programs