Philosopher Content type Biography Blog Encyclopedia Article Lesson Plan Podcast Collection We Remember This Week in History The Feminist Revolution Women Rabbis Women of Valor Power Couples Soviet Jewry Baltimore DC Katrina Seattle Western Pioneers Sarah Kofman Philosopher Sarah Kofman argued that the ideas of great thinkers couldn’t simply be taken on their abstract merit, they had to be considered in the context of those philosophers’ lives. Judith Butler Judith Butler transformed philosophy’s understanding of gender and queer studies with her theory that gender is not an inherent quality, it is a repeated performance based on social codes. Ruth Barcan Marcus Ruth Barcan Marcus made major contributions to logic, mathematics, and philosophy, arguing with thinkers like Bertrand Russell about the essential nature of names. May Brodbeck May Brodbeck’s career in the sciences ran the gamut from teaching high school chemistry to exploring fundamental philosophical questions about the nature of human consciousness. Ruth Nanda Anshen Ruth Nanda Anshen created connections between the great thinkers of different fields, offering them opportunities to explain their work to each other and the general public. Ayn Rand Ayn Rand sparked a new ethical philosophy called Objectivism with the principles laid out in her novels including the Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged.