An experimental writer whose works inspired Ernest Hemingway and Sherwood Anderson, Gertrude Stein shaped American literature with her writing and literary culture with her legendary Paris salons. In 1893, Stein followed her brother Leo to Harvard, where she took classes with William James and George Santayana at the Annex, the precursor to Radcliffe. Stein and her brothers Leo and Michael settled in Paris in 1903, where Stein began her writing career, although her early works were not well received. In 1907, she met Alice B. Toklas, her partner in every sense of the word, and the pair moved in together, co-hosting salons that included Picasso, Matisse, Hemingway, and Fitzgerald. Stein’s writing became more experimental, and her 1912 Tender Buttons was praised for its word-collage effect and innovative use of repetition. In her writing, Stein often used experimental techniques and coded language to explore her feelings for Toklas. In 1926, Stein lectured at Oxford and Cambridge and began writing essays explaining her experimental approach to writing. In 1933, she published her Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, finally achieving popular success and embarking on promotional tours of the US.
More on Gertrude Stein
- Encyclopedia Article: Gertrude Stein
- Power Couples: Art World Innovators
- This Week in History: Gertrude Stein publishes Alice B. Toklas "Autobiography"
- This Week in History: Death of Gertrude Stein
- This Week in History: Alice Babette Toklas moves in permanently with Gertrude Stein.
How to cite this page
Jewish Women's Archive. "Gertrude Stein." (Viewed on April 18, 2019) <https://jwa.org/people/stein-gertrude>.