Lucy Fox RobinsLang
Though her work was largely uncredited and behind the scenes, Lucy Fox Robins Lang contributed greatly to both the labor movement and the anarchist movement as aide and confidante to major figures like Emma Goldman and Samuel Gompers. During her childhood, Lang worked in a cigar factory and tended her younger siblings while taking courses at the Hull House settlement. A confirmed anarchist from age fifteen, Lang participated in demonstrations and contracted for a completely egalitarian marriage with anarchist Bob Robins in 1904. When the couple moved to New York, Lang met Emma Goldman and began arranging speaking tours, bail money, and publicity for the famed activist. For ten years, Lang and Robins travelled in a mobile home Lang designed, organizing activists around the country. In 1918, Lang began working with labor leader Samuel Gompers of the AFL, becoming his confidante and one of the few women to speak at the AFL annual convention. In 1919 she became executive secretary and organizer for a group to free political prisoners of WWI, and wrote War Shadows in 1922 about the successful amnesty campaign. Still active in 1939, she organized a fundraising group to establish a cooperative in Palestine for European refugees, among other projects.
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Jewish Women's Archive. "Lucy Fox Robins Lang." (Viewed on October 16, 2019) <https://jwa.org/people/lang-lucy>.