Chaile RaphaelKaulla

Chaile Raphael Kaulla took over her family’s bank at age 21 and funded the German army’s efforts to stop Napoleon’s conquest of Europe. As a girl, Kaulla was unusually well educated and began working at an early age for her father, a court banker in Hohenzollern-Hechingen. After her arranged marriage to Akiba Auerbach, she continued to work while her husband devoted himself to Talmud study. When her father died in 1760 she ran the family business alone for a decade, becoming court factor for the Fürstenbergs of Donaueschingen in 1768 and the Grand Duke of Wuerttemberg in Stuttgart in 1770, selling luxury items to these and other nobles and offering them credit. In 1770 she made her younger brother Jakob her business partner. Devout Jews, Kaulla and her brother supported both Jewish and Christian poor people, founded a hostel for Jewish travelers, and in 1803 donated a Beit Midrash, library, and funding for three rabbis to their town of Hechingen. In the 1790s the Kaulla firm became the supplier for the Imperial Reichsarmee, sending food and horses to those fighting Napoleon in southern Germany. In recognition of their service, the Austrian Emperor gave Kaulla the golden chain of honor in 1807 and she and her family were allowed to live in Stuttgart with rights equal to those of Christian citizens.

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Chaile Kaulla with her husband and son.
Courtesy of Gidal-Bildarchiv/Salomon Ludwig Steinheim-Bildarchiv für deutsch-jüdische Geshichte e.g., Duisberg
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Jewish Women's Archive. "Chaile Raphael Kaulla." (Viewed on June 17, 2021) <>.


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