Archeologist Ruth Amiran directed many of Israel's important excavation projects. She also helped to establish the Israel Museum in Jerusalem and then served as curator of its archeological wing.
Trude Dothan was one of the foremost biblical archaeologists of her generation. Her excavations and her research brought to light the material culture of the Philistines, the cultural connections between the seagoing nations and ancient Israel, and the connections with Egypt.
Claire Epstein is an outstanding example of a spirited woman archaeologist who worked untiringly and out of true love in search of the past in the Land of Israel. She received two important awards for her work: the Israel Museum’s Percia Shimmel Award in Archaeology and the Israel Prize for archaeology.
Hetty Goldman was one of the most distinguished American archaeologists in the early twentieth century, the first woman appointed to direct an archaeological excavation by the Archaeological Institute of America and the first woman professor at Princeton’s Institute for Advanced Study.
Helene was the sister and wife of Monabazus Bazaeus, king of Adiabene at the beginning of the first century CE. She converted to Judaism with other members of her family.
Judith Marquet-Krause was an archeologist who contributed her talents to early twentieth-century excavations of ancient cities across Palestine, most notably leading the excavation of Ai.
Whether or not women were a part of the Essenes’ Qumran settlement, they do appear in Qumran literature. Women in the halakhic writing are only discussed when there are explicit rulings about women’s issues. Halakhic literature shows that women were excluded from all facets of public life and generally were subject to strict halakhic rulings.
Helen Tanzer was an educator and translator in the early twentieth century. Contributing to the dissemination of classical and archaeological works, Tanzer well fulfilled the rigorous requirements of scholar and teacher.
Gladys Davidson Weinberg’s pioneering archaeological work on ancient and medieval glass and its manufacture in the Mediterranean world sheds light on the trade and technology of preindustrial societies.