The Encyclopedia features over 1,700 biographies, 300 thematic essays, and 1,400 photographs and illustrations on a wide range of Jewish women through the centuries -- from Gertrude Berg to Gertrude Stein; Hannah Greenebaum Solomon to Hannah Arendt; the Biblical Ruth to Ruth Bader Ginsburg.
As one of the most distinguished archaeologists of this century, Hetty Goldman was the first woman appointed to direct an archaeological excavation by the Archaeological Institute of America.
Josephine Goldmark’s work as a reformer in the Progressive Era did much to redesign the American social contract. Between 1903 and 1930, she shaped laws regulating child labor, the legal length of the working day, and minimum wage. At the National Consumers’ League (NCL) headquarters in New York City, she worked with executive director of the NCL Florence Kelley as chair of the publications committee. In that capacity, she compiled data demonstrating the need for legislation, wrote compelling articles using those data, and helped organize legislative campaigns.
Pauline Goldmark was a social worker and activist, part of a group of women seeking the vote and reforms of the urban and industrial excesses of the early twentieth century. A major method of social reformers was to investigate, accumulate facts, present these to the public and lawmakers, and assume that, once educated, the public and legislators would enact the desired changes. Goldmark pioneered in methods of social research central to these reform efforts.
Elisabeth Goldschmidt was the founder of genetic studies as a research and teaching discipline at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Gego, born Gertrude Goldschmidt, was one of Venezuela’s most creative and ingenious artists. Her sculptures have not only a sense of closure but also a boundlessness erasing any distance between viewer and artist and insisting on generating new perspectives.
Together with Auguste Schmidt (1833–1902) and Louise Otto Peters (1819–1895), she organized the First Conference of German Women, at which they established the General Association of German Women (Allgemeiner Deutscher Frauenverein), whose major goal was the emancipation of women.
Anna Maria Goldsmid, daughter of Isabel (née Eliason, 1788–1860) and Isaac Lyon Goldsmid (1778–1859), was a translator, lecturer, reformer, pamphleteer, founder of girls’ schools, and advocate of teachers’ colleges. She was a Victorian Jewish advocate of women’s education and Jewish emancipation who also made a name for herself as philanthropist and poet.
Edna Goldsmith was a driving force in the establishment of the Ohio Federation of Temple Sisterhoods. A founder of the federation, she served as its first president from 1918 to 1923 and then served as honorary president until her death. Throughout her life, Goldsmith was active in welfare organizations, concentrating particularly in the educational field.
In 1902, Luba Robin was the first woman to graduate from the school of medicine at the Western University of Pittsburgh (later the University of Pittsburgh). Luba Robin’s career combined private medical practice, teaching, writing, lecturing, and active participation in educational, social, and public health work.
Rabbi Elyse Goldstein was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania and educated at Brandeis University (B.A. summa cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa in 1978) and the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion (M.H.L. followed by ordination in 1983). As a student, she served at Beth Or, a synagogue for the deaf in the New York City area, and she remains committed to Jewish education for the deaf. Her first rabbinic positions were as assistant rabbi at Holy Blossom Temple in Toronto and rabbi of Temple Beth David in Canton, Massachusetts. She is one of many Canadian Jewish professionals born and/or trained in the United States. In the somewhat more conservative Canadian Jewish community, where synagogue egalitarianism has developed much more slowly than in the United States, she has been a path breaker.
Librarian, social activist, and founder of National Jewish Book Week, Fanny Goldstein helped institutionalize national pride in ethnic and immigrant backgrounds through her work in libraries and settlement houses, and in her lectures and writing.
Jennie Goldstein was one of the foremost Yiddish theater tragediennes, beloved by the public and acclaimed by critics for her ability to make audiences cry and for her outstanding voice.
As a consummate volunteer leader, she strove to make women a dominant force in organized Jewish life, helping to found the Women’s Branch of the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America, the Women’s League of the Institutional Synagogue, the Hebrew Teacher’s Training School for Girls, and the Yeshiva University Women’s Organization.
An early advocate of increased rights and responsibilities for women in Jewish life, Rose Goldstein was a prominent leader in the National Women’s League of the United Synagogue of America (now known as Women’s League for Conservative Judaism).
In 1942, Irgun Zeva'i Le'ummi member Shulamit Goldstein went to Egypt to learn to fly. Later in life, she became a nursery school teacher, a poultry farmer and a fiberglass manufacturer.
In a life filled with controversy and creativity, Claire Goll published novels and verse, reviewed the fashion, art, film and theater of her day and, with Yvan Goll —the object of her own affection and obsession—wrote volumes of love poetry.
“Golombism,” Rivke and Abraham Golomb’s ideology, came to the fore in Jewish education in Mexico with the founding of El Nuevo Colegio Israelita de Mexico I. L Peretz in 1950. The couple had many followers not only in Mexico but also in Europe, Israel and Canada. In 1946 they founded the Seminar le-Morim (Teachers’ Seminar) where they taught the first generations of teachers in Jewish education in Mexico. Rivke Golomb taught practical pedagogy and “geshikhte fun yidisher dertsiung” (History of Jewish Education).
According to the Rabbis, God commanded Hosea to marry Gomer, the daughter of Diblaim, to teach him proper conduct for one who was to prophesy to Israel.
The eighth-century b.c.e. prophet Hosea’s famous metaphor of God as faithful husband to Israel, his adulterous wife (Hosea 2), is juxtaposed with the story of Hosea’s own disastrous marriage to Gomer, Diblaim’s daughter (Hosea 1; 3). It is difficult, however, to separate historical facts about the couple’s domestic problems from the theological message expressed through them.
In 1991 Nadine Gordimer became the first South African to win the Nobel Prize for Literature. Nadine Gordimer’s work provides a very sensitive and acute analysis of South African society. By depicting the impact of apartheid on the lives of her character, she presents a sweeping canvas of a society where all have been affected by institutionalized racial discrimination and oppression.
Dorothy Lerner Gordon—musician, broadcaster, author—dedicated her talents to the entertainment and education of children and young people.
Jean Gordon had two successful careers in her lifetime, as a founder of the Advance Pattern Company and as the owner and publisher of Dance Magazine.
Although she started acting in Russia at a young age, Vera Gordon initially struggled to build a career in the United States. She went on to a long career on stage and screen, however, known especially for portraying Jewish mothers in a positive light—with warmth and deep emotion.
How to cite this page
Jewish Women's Archive. "Encyclopedia." (Viewed on February 19, 2019) <https://jwa.org/encyclopedia/content/G>.