The Shalvi/Hyman Encyclopedia of Jewish Women

Features thousands of biographic and thematic essays on Jewish women around the world. Learn more

Galina Nizhnikov Veremkroit

b. 1940

by JWA Staff
Our work to expand the Encyclopedia is ongoing. We are providing this brief biography for Galina Nizhnikov Veremkroit until we are able to commission a full entry.

Activist and writer Galina Nizhnikov Veremkroit on January 12, 2003.

Galina Nizhnikov Veremkroit risked her own safety to become one of the first female refuseniks to protest for the right to leave Soviet Russia. Facing discrimination for her faith and concerned for her sons’ futures, Nizhnikov Veremkroit applied to emigrate and was refused. Soon after, she became active in the refusenik community and her in-laws introduced her to Ida Nudel, a noted female refusenik. Nudel invited her to be one of six women demonstrating at the Kremlin Wall, where no protesters had dared to demonstrate before. Up to this point, refusenik protests were largely made up of men, and were often met with violence by the KGB. Nizhnikov Veremkroit and her family were repeatedly threatened for their activism, but were finally allowed to leave thanks in part to pressure from the US. After resettling in the Boston area, Nizhnikov Veremkroit worked with a number of organizations dedicated to helping refuseniks immigrate to the US and wrote a memoir about her experiences, The Courage of Despair.

How to cite this page

Jewish Women's Archive. "Galina Nizhnikov Veremkroit." (Viewed on December 5, 2023) <>.


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