Rosa Mordecai

1839 – 1936

by Barbara Brenzel

Rosa Mordecai was born into an important nineteenth-century Jewish American family in Washington, D.C., on February 14, 1839. Little detail is known of her life. One of her biographers noted in 1912 that “Miss Mordecai says of herself ... she is simply Rose Mordecai, ‘without either romance or mystery, but one who loves her fellow men.’” In his introduction to a 1953 republication of Mordecai’s recollections of the first Hebrew Sunday school in America, Joshua Bloch said she “was one of the last representatives of that group of pious gentlewomen, who in their days were responsible for the religious training of Jewish youth and who left an indelible impression upon the mind and spirit of all who had come to know them.”

Mordecai was a scion of a distinguished family of merchants, physicians, educators, soldiers, philanthropists, and reformers. Faith in education as the path toward equality of opportunity was instilled in Rosa Mordecai by her father, Alfred Mordecai—a distinguished educator and businessman, the first Jewish graduate of West Point, and the foremost expert on munitions in antebellum America—and her mother, Sarah (Hays), niece of Rebecca Gratz, the founder of the first Hebrew Sunday school in America.

From her mother, Rosa Mordecai inherited her faith in Judaism. Mordecai’s contributions to the character of nineteenth-century Judaism was evident in a public and private life dedicated to the idea and practice of merging Jewish American women’s spiritual and religious lives within the temporal and secular world of nineteeth-century America. With her sisters, Laura and Miriam, Mordecai established and operated a private school in Philadelphia for girls, which they ran for forty years. No doubt Mordecai’s efforts in this direction were a legacy of her paternal grandfather, Jacob Mordecai, who established a seminary for “young ladies” in Warrenton, North Carolina, in 1809. In its day, this seminary was considered one of the better institutions of instruction in the South, drawing its students from many prominent southern families.

Mordecai’s contemporary account of the first Hebrew Sunday school in America remains as the most thorough record of religious education of Jewish children in the antebellum United States. This Sunday school, established in Philadelphia in 1838, was founded by Mordecai’s maternal great-aunt, Rebecca Gratz. According to Bloch, Mordecai’s account of this school “enrich[es] our knowledge of the personality of Rebecca Gratz ... and of the remarkable role she played in early efforts to strengthen the position of Judaism and to give meaning to its teaching and practices in this country.”

A prominent citizen of Philadelphia, Mordecai “contributed, in various ways, to the improvement of civic life.” Rosa Mordecai died in Washington, D.C., on October 31, 1936. She is buried in Philadelphia in the cemetery of the Ritual bathMikveh Israel Congregation.


AJYB 39:595; Bloch, Joshua. “Rosa Mordecai’s Recollections of the First Hebrew Sunday School.” PAJHS 42, no. 4 (June 1953): 397–406; DAB; JE; Logan, Mary S. The Part Taken by Women in American History (1912. Reprinted 1972); Marcus, Jacob Rader. Memoirs of American Jews, 1775–1865 (1955–1956), and United States Jewry, 1776–1985. Vol. 1 (1989).

More on Rosa Mordecai


Plain text

  • No HTML tags allowed.
  • Web page addresses and email addresses turn into links automatically.
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.

How to cite this page

Brenzel, Barbara. "Rosa Mordecai." Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. 20 March 2009. Jewish Women's Archive. (Viewed on August 14, 2020) <>.


Help us elevate the voices of Jewish women.

donate now

Get JWA in your inbox