Leah: Bible

by Tikva Frymer-Kensky

Leah is the elder daughter of Laban and the wife of Jacob, father of twelve sons who will become the twelve tribes of Israel. Leah and her sister Rachel, whose names mean “cow” and “ewe,” give Jacob many sons; and their father gives him actual live-stock Leah is described as having “soft (lovely) eyes” (Gen 29:7). Some translations (such as NJPS, RSV, NEB, and REB), perhaps influenced by Jacob’s preference for Rachel, render this as “dull-eyed” or “weak eyes,” but the more appropriate translation is “soft eyes” (as in NRSV and NAB)—what we might call “cow eyes.” She has six sons, who become six of the Israelite tribes (Gen 35:23; 46:5, 14).

Jacob sets out to Mesopotamia to marry from his parents’ collateral line. His father Isaac had married a first cousin, once removed; Jacob will marry his matrilineal first cousins and his paternal second cousins, once removed. In so doing, he too will marry into the family of Terah, the father of Abraham and Nahor, the grandfather of Rebekah, and the great-grandfather of Rachel and Leah. Jacob meets Rachel at a well (compare the stories of Zipporah and Rebekah) and falls in love. Penniless, he contracts to work seven years as his bride wealth. After the wedding feast, in the dark of evening, Jacob goes in to consummate the marriage, but Leah has been substituted for her sister; in the morning, Jacob claims that “It was Leah!” (Gen 29:25). This is a multiple reversal: the trickster has been tricked, and the man who supplanted his elder brother marries the elder sister. Laban makes the message clear as he declares that the younger must not be married first. Jacob then arranges to receive Rachel at the end of the wedding week and thereafter to work another seven years to pay off her bride price.

The two sisters are co-wives in competition for status in the household. Jacob clearly prefers Rachel (Gen 29:30). In compensation, God “opened [Leah’s] womb” (Gen 29:32), whereas Rachel proves to be barren. Perhaps the significance of Leah’s name comes into play here. Cows are a great symbol of fertility in Mesopotamia, partially because of the similarity between the words littu, “cow,” and alittu, “birthgiver.” Leah’s fertility quickly results in four sons. Nevertheless, because of Jacob’s obvious preference for Rachel, Leah remains insecure and in the naming of her sons shows how she hopes to gain favor through bearing them. She names her first son Reuben (“see, a son”) her next one Simeon (“God heard that I am unloved”), the third one Levi (“now my husband will be with me”), and the fourth one Judah (“thanks! [NRSV, praise]”). At this point Rachel is jealous and has her maid Bilhah give birth to two sons; Leah, no longer fertile, responds by having her own maid Zilpah bear two sons (Gen 30:9–13; 35:26; 46:18).

The climax in the rivalry between the sisters/co-wives comes when Reuben finds mandrakes. Both sisters want them for their fertility-inducing powers and perhaps also for their aphrodisiac qualities. They strike a bargain: Leah will give Rachel the mandrakes in return for a night with Jacob. Leah crudely announces to Jacob that she has “hired” him with the mandrakes, and Jacob spends the night with her (Gen 30:14–17). When co-wives unite in purpose, husbands must comply. The new accord between the sisters helps Leah become pregnant (or the mandrakes work), for she gives birth to two more sons—Issachar (“God has given me my hire”) and Zebulon (“now my husband will honor me”)—and a daughter, Dinah (Gen 30:17–21).

The sisters are also in accord when Jacob asks them to come back with him to Canaan, but they are unhappy that their father gave them nothing of the bride wealth that Jacob provided in his fourteen years of service (Gen 31:3–15). Yet, like Rebekah, they affirm their choice to leave their parental home. They depart together, but despite all her children, Leah is still second best. When Jacob believes that danger threatens in his meeting with Esau, he arranges his family so that the maids and their children are placed first, then Leah and her children, and last and most protected, Rachel and Joseph (Gen 33:1–2; compare 32:22). Even after Rachel’s death, Jacob will continue to favor her son, Joseph.

Leah does not play the kind of role in determining the fate of her sons that Rebekah and Sarah did, perhaps because she never feels as secure as they did, and possibly because in a polygamous situation, co-wives have less influence except when they are united. The absence of a clear matriarchal hand shows itself in the uncontrolled friction between the children, but all the children of Jacob are to inherit the blessing. Nothing more is heard of Leah other than Jacob’s statement that he buried her in the Cave of Machpelah with Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah (Gen 49:31).

In Israelite tradition, the maid-mothers were forgotten, but Rachel and Leah were remembered. The prophet Hosea relates how Jacob went to Aram to search for a wife (Hos 12:13), and the wedding blessing for Ruth remembers Rachel and Leah as the ancestresses “who built up the house of Israel” (Ruth 4:11).

Bibliography

Brenner, Athalya. “Female Social Behaviour: Two Descriptive Patterns Within the ‘Birth of the Hero’ Paradigm.” Vetus Testamentum 36 (1986): 257–273.

Cohen, Norman J. “Two That Are One: Sibling Rivalry in Genesis.” Judaism 32 (1983): 331–342.

Jagendorf, Zvi. “‘In the Morning, Behold, It Was Leah’: Genesis and the Reversal of Sexual Knowledge.” Prooftexts 4 (1984): 187–192.

Meyers, Carol, General Editor. Women in Scripture. New York: 2000.

Ross-Burstall, Joan. “Leah and Rachel: A Tale of Two Sisters [Gen 29:31–30:24].” Word and World 14 (1994): 162–170.

9 Comments

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how did zipah Leah's maid have two sons, did she lay with Jacob to have these sons?  

 

In reply to by Anonymous

I believe and having read that eventually Jacob came to respect Leah, however Rachel still had his love. Jacob had sex not only with his wives but their handmaidens as well. Did he love them? No. I think that we want to romanticize their relationship but I'm sure Jacob felt betrayed whenever he looked at Leah. And it's evident in the names she gave her children and Jacob's favoritism toward Rachel's sons. We see today relationships, marriages were there is no love. I believe that Leah is an example for women who find themselves in such relationships. Also Leah cannot be blamed for Laban's deception. Women didn't have the power or authority.

But if only Leah realized that she was greatly loved by God even though her father gave her away like that and her husband didn't want her. In trying to win Jacob's favour she missed out on a real opportunity to have a wonderful relationship with the God who loved her. If only Leah turned to God whole heartedly without idolizing her husband as she did there's no telling how her story would have ended. Eventually Leah gave up trying to win over Jacob's love, because even after Rachel died Jacob still didn't love her, he never would because usually idols can't love you back.

I greatly suspect Leah had a crush on Jacob prior to him marrying her. She wanted to marry him otherwise why would she try to win his favour through out their marriage when he clearly didn't want her. At the end of the day Jacob stayed with Leah for convenience not love and she was probably insecure way before their marriage, maybe coz she felt disposable by her father.

Don't be too hasty to Judge the sisters.   This was almost 4000 yrs ago.  The text plainly points out that Jacob made the deal with Laban (not Rachel). This happened at a time when Jacob dealt only with the father and probably didn't even discuss his plans with Rachel (or Leah for that matter). He established this business arrangement and went to work, Leah was not "In on it" she felt just as betrayed by her father as Jacob did.  Does not Leah later claim that Rachel "stole" her husband.  The text would imply a Patriarchal system that did not include the women's choice in the matter.

I realize that this post is approximately 9 years old, but I wanted to thank you for the posting it and thank Diana Smart for her comment. The Lord wanted me to review Leah this morning and I went out to find new information,found this post  and most every one feels sorry for Leah. I think one our big problems as Christians is that we dont study our Bible like we should. Many years ago I was study Genesis and was about to just read over Genesis 30:15 .Jacob was not Leah's husband Jacob loved and worked 7 years to marry Rachel and was on another 7 year stint working for her when Leah makes this comment .The reason Jacob did not realize it was NOT Rachel is because he was drunk but Leah said NOTHING .Not sure what her face was like but her heart was ugly. Is this why so many believers (men & women)have affairs without a thought???? Leah was her father's daughter

In reply to by Lisa R.Coleman

I have read nowhere that Jacob was drunk. Just because there was a feast doesn't automatically imply he was drunk. I have sympathy for all three involved here. Jacob tricked and was tricked but I also believe Leah could have stepped forward at sometime and told Jacob and Rachel. Yes it was a different culture and the father's had the say but I believe she could have said something but chose not to. I believe GOD did see her as the rightful wife though. The vows were made and GOD did bless her. She gave birth to the tribe of the Levites and Judah. She outlived Rachel and was buried with her husband. God blessed Rachel also with two sons especially Joseph. So with all the good and the bad GOD used it for his perfect timing with Joseph and Egypt etc. GOD was and is always in control. I take away several things from this lesson but mostly trust His timing and praise Him even in the hard times. There is always hope!

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perhaps Leah should have revealed herself in the tent and took a chance with Jacob. She would have had a higher chance at earning his favor? Her father's brawn was not with her in that tent and as a sister she should have shown more loyalty to her sister. Integrity always expresses herself in honesty. I could imagine every time Jacob looked at her he remembered their first meeting and her treachery. Even if he forgave her it was not a good way to start a marriage. That second 7 years of toil was because of her. And if he didn't love her, he knew those 7 years were unnecessary, except for her treachery to both his true love and himself.

How to cite this page

Frymer-Kensky, Tikva. "Leah: Bible." Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. 20 March 2009. Jewish Women's Archive. (Viewed on November 13, 2019) <https://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/leah-bible>.

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