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Marriage

MA'YAN's First Community Feminist Seder, 1994

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One aspect of feminist ritual development is the modification of existing rituals to enable women's full participation and recognition. A primary example is the participation in seders which highlight women's contribution to the Passover story. This photograph was taken at MA'YAN's first Community Feminist Seder, which was held in 1994. More than two hundred women attended.

Photographer: Joan Roth

One aspect of feminist ritual development is the modification of existing rituals to enable women's full participation and recognition. A primary example is the participation in seders which highlight women's contribution to the Passover story. This photograph was taken at MA'YAN's first Community Feminist Seder, which was held in 1994. More than two hundred women attended.

Photographer: Joan Roth

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Old Yishuv, People Praying at the Western Wall

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Women made up a disproportionate number of the Jewish population in Palestine at the end of the Ottoman era. For women of the time, even more than for men, the Land of Israel was the place in which one could devote oneself to prayer in the holy places and to living an ongoing pilgrimage. This picture of men and women praying at the Kotel in Jerusalem was taken at about this time.
Photographer: American Colony Photo Dept/Matson Photo Service
Institution: U.S. Library of Congress
Women made up a disproportionate number of the Jewish population in Palestine at the end of the Ottoman era. For women of the time, even more than for men, the Land of Israel was the place in which one could devote oneself to prayer in the holy places and to living an ongoing pilgrimage. This picture of men and women praying at the Kotel in Jerusalem was taken at about this time.
Photographer: American Colony Photo Dept/Matson Photo Service
Institution: U.S. Library of Congress

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Old Yishuv, Women Praying at the Western Wall

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The lifestyle of the women in the Holy Land largely embodied their religious ideals. Not content merely to live in the Land, they spent their time visiting the holy places a kind of pilgrimage within pilgrimage. They would gather regularly for prayer at holy sites, most prominently the Western Wall (as shown in this period photograph) and Rachel's tomb.
Photographer: American Colony Photo Dept/Matson Photo Service
Institution: U.S. Library of Congress

The lifestyle of the women in the Holy Land largely embodied their religious ideals. Not content merely to live in the Land, they spent their time visiting the holy places a kind of pilgrimage within pilgrimage. They would gather regularly for prayer at holy sites, most prominently the Western Wall (as shown in this period photograph) and Rachel's tomb.
Photographer: American Colony Photo Dept/Matson Photo Service
Institution: U.S. Library of Congress

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Jewish Men and Women in the Levant, circa 1908

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Two Jewish men and two Jewish women, dressed in the Arab-style dress typical for Jews in Palestine of the time, are standing in front of the Western Wall, Jerusalem, circa 1908.
Photo by Underwood & Underwood, Courtesy of the U.S. Library of Congress.
Two Jewish men and two Jewish women, dressed in the Arab-style dress typical for Jews in Palestine of the time, are standing in front of the Western Wall, Jerusalem, circa 1908.
Photo by Underwood & Underwood, Courtesy of the U.S. Library of Congress.

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Francine Klagsbrun Carries the Torah, 1991

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Francine Klagsbrun, in 1991, carries the Torah to the Kotel to conduct a prayer service.
Courtesy of Joan Roth.
Francine Klagsbrun, in 1991, carries the Torah to the Kotel to conduct a prayer service.
Courtesy of Joan Roth.

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Simhat Bat Guide to the Ceremony

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Over the past quarter of a century, feminists have developed a variety of new rituals to highlight women's life cycle events, in some cases building on traditional forms of female-oriented ritual. One example is the Simhat Bat ceremony to welcome baby girls, which finds precedent in the Zeved ha-Bat birth ceremonies held in past and present Sephardi, North African, and Syrian communities. Pictured here is a guide to the Simhat Bat ceremony published by the Jewish Women's Resource Center of the National Council of Jewish Women.

Institution: Eleanor Leff Jewish Women’s Resource Center (JWRC) of the National Council of Jewish Women, New York Section

Over the past quarter of a century, feminists have developed a variety of new rituals to highlight women's life cycle events, in some cases building on traditional forms of female-oriented ritual. One example is the Simhat Bat ceremony to welcome baby girls, which finds precedent in the Zeved ha-Bat birth ceremonies held in past and present Sephardi, North African, and Syrian communities. Pictured here is a guide to the Simhat Bat ceremony published by the Jewish Women's Resource Center of the National Council of Jewish Women.

Institution: Eleanor Leff Jewish Women’s Resource Center (JWRC) of the National Council of Jewish Women, New York Section

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International Coalition for Agunah Rights Representatives

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Representatives from the International Coalition for Agunah Rights gather with signs.
Courtesy of Joan Roth.
Representatives from the International Coalition for Agunah Rights gather with signs.
Courtesy of Joan Roth.

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The Hasmonian and Herodian Dynasties

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The Hasmonian and Herodian Dynasties.
The Hasmonian and Herodian Dynasties.

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Betty Friedan

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Born Bettye Naomi Goldstein, feminist revolutionary Betty Friedan (1921–2006) was considered by many to be the "mother" of the second wave of modern feminism. Her struggles against the "Feminine Mystique" and in favor of gender equality led to a fundamental transformation, not only in the way American society views women, but in the way American women view themselves.

Institution: Online repository.

Born Bettye Naomi Goldstein, feminist revolutionary Betty Friedan (1921–2006) was considered by many to be the "mother" of the second wave of modern feminism. Her struggles against the "Feminine Mystique" and in favor of gender equality led to a fundamental transformation, not only in the way American society views women, but in the way American women view themselves.

Institution: Online repository.

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"Halizah" Scroll

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Halizah scroll 5584/1923. This document, which dissolves the commitment between a woman and her husband's brother to marry if the husband dies childless, was given to the bride by the groom's brother on the wedding day, because of Jamaican Jews' numerous and lengthy travels throughout the world.

Institution: Mordechai Arbell Collection, Diaspora Museum, Tel Aviv.

Halizah scroll 5584/1923. This document, which dissolves the commitment between a woman and her husband's brother to marry if the husband dies childless, was given to the bride by the groom's brother on the wedding day, because of Jamaican Jews' numerous and lengthy travels throughout the world.

Institution: Mordechai Arbell Collection, Diaspora Museum, Tel Aviv.

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Jewish Women's Archive. "Marriage." (Viewed on February 9, 2016) <http://jwa.org/topics/marriage>.

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