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Hebrew

Sarah Shmukler

Sarah Shmukler—nurse, midwife and Second [jwa_encyclopedia_glossary:293]Aliyah[/jwa_encyclopedia_glossary] pioneer—is an outstanding example of Israel’s working women. Her death in Yesud ha-Ma’alah in 1919, as she battled a yellow fever epidemic, made her a symbol of the fate of the new woman of the Land of Israel, her creativity and her love.

Anna G. Sherman

Anna G. Sherman was one of the unsung heroes of the Hebraist movement in the United States. A passionate believer in Hebrew as the vehicle for nurturing Jewish identity, Sherman taught adults, mostly women, at the extension schools of the Teachers Institute of the Jewish Theological Seminary for approximately forty years.

Havvah Shapiro

Over her lifetime, Havvah Shapiro composed some fifty pieces of literary criticism, fiction, or journalism appearing in over half a dozen Hebrew periodicals, as well as a collection of short sketches and a scholarly monograph. Of the nineteenth-century women writers of Hebrew in the Diaspora, Shapiro is the most prolific.

Second Aliyah: Women's Experience and Their Role in the Yishuv

The question of women’s identity in Jewish society in general and Yishuv society in particular has attracted some scholarly attention. The majority of the studies offer an approach that depicts the adoption of masculine characteristics by the new Hebrew woman and the excessive admiration for masculine labor as opposed to feminine labor.

Martha Schlamme

Once described as a “Viennese Mary Martin,” Martha Schlamme began her American career singing Yiddish and Hebrew songs in the resort hotels of the Catskills in the late 1940s. She earned a national reputation in the 1950s as a performer of “Songs of Many Lands”, and later won acclaim for her interpretations of Kurt Weill songs.

Tova Sanhadray-Goldreich

Tova Sanhadray, chairwoman of the Emunah organization and the first woman member of the [jwa_encyclopedia_glossary:345]Knesset[/jwa_encyclopedia_glossary] to represent the National Religious Party, is regarded as a pathbreaker, since she began her public activity in Israel at a time when the participation of religious women in public life was not yet considered acceptable.

Nina Ruth Davis Salaman

Nina Salaman was a well-regarded Hebraist, known especially for her translations of medieval Hebrew poetry, at a time when Jewish scholarship in Europe was a male preserve. In addition to her translations, she published historical and critical essays, book reviews, and an anthology of Jewish readings for children, as well as poetry of her own.

Dalia Ravikovitch

Though her crisp lyricism remained essentially unchanged and could sometimes evoke the sense of emotional turmoil displayed in her earlier poetry, in the course of four decades Ravikovitch developed into a versatile writer who engaged in a wide range of issues: personal and general, local and international.

Puah Rakovsky

Referring to herself in her memoirs as a “revolutionary Jewish woman,” Puah Rakovsky included her personal struggle for autonomy together with her Zionist and feminst activism in her self-definition. She dedicated her long life to struggling for the empowerment of Jews, and particularly of Jewish women.

Rahel Bluwstein

Rahel Bluwstein is rightfully considered the “founding mother” of modern Hebrew poetry by women. Rahel’s affiliation with the avant-garde group of Second Aliyah pioneers, her dedication to Zionist ideals and her agonizing death, made her a symbol in the eyes of the Israeli public—and her mythic status persists to this day.

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Jewish Women's Archive. "Hebrew." (Viewed on February 9, 2016) <http://jwa.org/topics/hebrew>.

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