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Hebrew

Legal-Religious Status of the Jewish Female

Hebrew is a gendered language in which women are or may be included in masculine plural address and masculine plural verbs. When the address in the [jwa_encyclopedia_glossary:424]Torah[/jwa_encyclopedia_glossary] is “man or woman” (ish o isha) or “a person” (adam or nefesh), and sometimes in the plural, inclusion of women (sg. isha) can be assumed. When the Torah addresses in unspecified masculine singular language it is assumed that women are included unless they are exempted on grounds of physiology or by particular hermeneutic methods which depend chiefly upon the gendered aspects of the language, such as singular and plural masculine pronominal suffixes which are the norm, and word choice in address such as ish. These include but are not limited tothe sons of Israel but not the daughters of Israel” (for benei Yisrael); “the sons of Aaron but not the daughters of Aaron” (for benei aharon); “your son/s but not your daughter/s” (for banekha or beneikhem); “you [masculine]” (ata or atem) and the like.

Frances Krasnow

In 1917, Frances Krasnow graduated from Barnard College with a bachelor of science cum laude, from Columbia University with a master’s degree, and from the Teachers Institute of the Jewish Theological Seminary. Krasnow would eventually receive recognition for being a pioneer in both science and Jewish education.

Malka Kolodny

Malka Kolodny (née Fisz), one of the earliest educators in pre-State Palestine, was born in Horodziec (Horodyszcze), in the Volhynia district of Poland, on June 17, 1910, the youngest of eight children of an Orthodox Jewish family.

Feiga Izrailevna Kogan

Feiga Izrailevna Kogan composed books of and about Russian poetry while harboring a love of Hebrew. Although her reputation is modest, she is known among aficionados of her teacher Vyacheslav Ivanovich Ivanov (1866–1949), who, together with Aleksandr Blok (1880–1921) and Andrey Bely (1880–1934), represented the leadership troika of the second wave of Russian Symbolism.

Lia Koenig

Lia Koenig has performed at the Habimah theater without a break for more than forty years. In 1986 she was awarded the Israel Prize for her distinguished achievements as an outstanding actor.

Kindergartens in Palestine: First and Second Aliyah (1882-1914)

Today, it is impossible to conceive of a proper educational system that does not include kindergartens. But this was not the case in the late nineteenth century, when the earliest pioneers reached Palestine, began to establish agricultural settlements and laid the cornerstone for the country’s earliest educational institutions.

Shirley Kaufman

Shirley Kaufman’s ouevre, though slender, belongs to the poetry of permanent value which has been written in the last quarter of the twentieth century. She began publishing relatively late in her life, in her forties, but from the time that her first volume, The Floor Keeps Turning, appeared in 1970, she continued to produce brilliantly etched lyrics of increasing complexity and depth over the following four decades.

Shulamith Katznelson

A prize-winning pioneer in the teaching of Hebrew by way of an intensive immersion in the language (the ulpan method) and an ardent proponent of peaceful dialogue between Israel’s Jewish and Arab citizens, Shulamith Katznelson was born in Geneva, Switzerland on August 17, 1919, while her parents were students there. She came to Israel when she was two years old.

Rahel Katznelson

A thinker and teacher, Rahel Katznelson was one of the early activists in the Labor Movement and Mo’ezet ha-Po’alot in the Yishuv and Israel.

Mordecai Kaplan

Mordecai Kaplan (1881–1983), the founding father of Reconstructionist Judaism, was a lifelong supporter of the rights of women. The roots of his concern for women may go back to his father: Rabbi Israel Kaplan, though strictly traditional, was concerned that his daughter Sophie (a few years older than Mordecai) have a Jewish education.

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How to cite this page

Jewish Women's Archive. "Hebrew." (Viewed on August 28, 2015) <http://jwa.org/topics/hebrew>.

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