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Hebrew

Bracha Peli

Bracha Peli was unique among the literary community of pre-state Palestine, inasmuch as she created what was probably the most successful and dynamic publishing house in the country at the time, stressing distribution and sales rather than the content and editorial aspects which are the usual focus of publishing aspirations and inspiration.

Rachel Morpurgo

An Italian Hebrew poet, Rachel Morpurgo was part of the renaissance of Hebrew poetry and literature that began at the end of the eighteenth century. In a century that produced famous women poets such as Christina Rossetti and Elizabeth Barrett Browning, she achieved great renown in Jewish scholarly circles as a Hebrew poet.

Fania Metman-Cohen

Fania Metman-Cohen set up the first Hebrew kindergarten in Odessa in 1899 and ran a Zionist school in 1902–1903, at which Chaim Nachman Bialik taught. She was active in the local B’not Zion organization for the education of Zionist women and—together with her husband—set up the Army of Rebirth Association that sent educators, physicians and other professionals to Palestine.

Medieval Hebrew Literature: Portrayal of Women

Stereotypes of women, “good” and “bad,” inhabit the width and length of the medieval Hebrew canon (Dishon 1986, 3–15; Dishon 1994, 35–50; Navas 1994, 9–16; Huss 2002). The love poetry cultivated during the Golden Age in Muslim Spain (950–1150) seems to glorify and idealize women.

Maskilot, Nineteenth Century

In referring to Jewish women proponents of the Haskalah (Enlightenment) who wished to take part in the cultural and social revolution that the Haskalah movement preached, the Hebrew term maskilot refers not only to their ideology but also to their language: these were women who wrote in Hebrew.

Miriam Markel-Mosessohn

Miriam Wierzbolowska was born in 1839 in Volkovyshki (Vilkaviskis), a town in SW Lithuania. Like her biblical namesake, the girl had two brothers, Yosef and Shemuel (though she also had a sister, Devorah). From early on, their parents, Hayyah and Shimon—a wealthy merchant—introduced their children to the study of Hebrew.

Nehama Leibowitz

Nehama Leibowitz was born in 1905 in Riga, Latvia, to Mordechai and Freyda Leibowitz. She grew up in a home filled with Jewish and general culture, competing in her father’s Bible quizzes against her brother, Yeshayahu, who later became a famous and controversial Israeli philosopher. In 1919 the family moved to Berlin, where Leibowitz taught, wrote articles and studied for her doctorate. She married her uncle, Lipman Leibowitz, who was many years her senior, and on the day she finished her doctorate they fulfilled their dream and moved to Israel (c. 1930).

Legal-Religious Status of the Jewish Female

Hebrew is a gendered language in which women are or may be included in masculine plural address and masculine plural verbs. When the address in the [jwa_encyclopedia_glossary:424]Torah[/jwa_encyclopedia_glossary] is “man or woman” (ish o isha) or “a person” (adam or nefesh), and sometimes in the plural, inclusion of women (sg. isha) can be assumed. When the Torah addresses in unspecified masculine singular language it is assumed that women are included unless they are exempted on grounds of physiology or by particular hermeneutic methods which depend chiefly upon the gendered aspects of the language, such as singular and plural masculine pronominal suffixes which are the norm, and word choice in address such as ish. These include but are not limited tothe sons of Israel but not the daughters of Israel” (for benei Yisrael); “the sons of Aaron but not the daughters of Aaron” (for benei aharon); “your son/s but not your daughter/s” (for banekha or beneikhem); “you [masculine]” (ata or atem) and the like.

Frances Krasnow

In 1917, Frances Krasnow graduated from Barnard College with a bachelor of science cum laude, from Columbia University with a master’s degree, and from the Teachers Institute of the Jewish Theological Seminary. Krasnow would eventually receive recognition for being a pioneer in both science and Jewish education.

Malka Kolodny

Malka Kolodny (née Fisz), one of the earliest educators in pre-State Palestine, was born in Horodziec (Horodyszcze), in the Volhynia district of Poland, on June 17, 1910, the youngest of eight children of an Orthodox Jewish family.

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How to cite this page

Jewish Women's Archive. "Hebrew." (Viewed on October 30, 2014) <http://jwa.org/topics/hebrew>.

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