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Communism

Esther Ritz

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A civic leader par excellence, Esther Leah Ritz directed and supported numerous local, national and international organizations and causes, ranging from the Milwaukee Jewish Federation to the Democratic Party to Middle East peace efforts, and including hundreds of programs to protect the rights of the disenfranchised.
Photographer: Tom Bamberger, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Institution: Peggy Brill
A civic leader par excellence, Esther Leah Ritz directed and supported numerous local, national and international organizations and causes, ranging from the Milwaukee Jewish Federation to the Democratic Party to Middle East peace efforts, and including hundreds of programs to protect the rights of the disenfranchised.
Photographer: Tom Bamberger, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Institution: Peggy Brill

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Olga Benario Prestes Exhibit

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Photograph of Olga Benario Prestes (L) in the exhibit, "Women of Ravensbruck—Portraits of Courage," curated by Rochelle G. Saidel for the Florida Holocaust Museum, St. Petersburg. Artwork on right by Julia Terwilliger.

Institution: Rochelle Saidel

Photograph of Olga Benario Prestes (L) in the exhibit, "Women of Ravensbruck—Portraits of Courage," curated by Rochelle G. Saidel for the Florida Holocaust Museum, St. Petersburg. Artwork on right by Julia Terwilliger.

Institution: Rochelle Saidel

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Zosha Posnanska, 1933

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One of the unsung Jewish heroes of World War II, utopianist Zosha Posnanska fought the Germans by aiding the Soviet military. As a member of their intelligence network she provided information crucial to the Allies until she was captured by the Germans and committed suicide at the age of thirty-six. She appears here in Brussels in February, 1933.

Institution: Yehudit Kafri

One of the unsung Jewish heroes of World War II, utopianist Zosha Posnanska fought the Germans by aiding the Soviet military. As a member of their intelligence network she provided information crucial to the Allies until she was captured by the Germans and committed suicide at the age of thirty-six. She appears here in Brussels in February, 1933.

Institution: Yehudit Kafri

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GIl Marcus, Nelson Mandela, and Michael Katz, December 1990

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Gill Marcus (C) with Nelson Mandela (R) and Professor Michael Katz (L), President of the South African Jewish Board of Deputies (SAJBD), at a meeting between representatives of the SAJBD and the African National Congress in December 1990.
Courtest of David Saks, South African Jewish Board of Deputies.
Gill Marcus (C) with Nelson Mandela (R) and Professor Michael Katz (L), President of the South African Jewish Board of Deputies (SAJBD), at a meeting between representatives of the SAJBD and the African National Congress in December 1990.
Courtest of David Saks, South African Jewish Board of Deputies.

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Clara Sereni

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Italian writer Clara Sereni is particularly interested in giving space and voice to marginal personae, and in "recovering the lost language of women."

Courtesy of Clara Sereni, Perugia, Italy

Italian writer Clara Sereni is particularly interested in giving space and voice to marginal personae, and in "recovering the lost language of women."

Courtesy of Clara Sereni, Perugia, Italy

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Mire Gola

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Mire Gola.
Courtesy of the Ghetto House Fighters Archive.
Mire Gola.
Courtesy of the Ghetto House Fighters Archive.

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Ethel Rosenberg with Husband Julius

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Ethel Rosenberg’s Jewish identity was forged not by any ties to traditional Judaism but by her political radicalism. Indeed, when she and her husband, Julius, were charged with espionage, attempts were made by their fellow "leftists" to link their prosecution with antisemitism. But the established Jewish community, fearing any association with Jewish radicalism, rejected this charge. The couple was convicted on March 29, 1951, and sentenced to death, the only two American civilians to be executed for espionage-related activity during the Cold War.

Ethel Rosenberg’s Jewish identity was forged not by any ties to traditional Judaism but by her political radicalism. Indeed, when she and her husband, Julius, were charged with espionage, attempts were made by their fellow "leftists" to link their prosecution with antisemitism. But the established Jewish community, fearing any association with Jewish radicalism, rejected this charge. The couple was convicted on March 29, 1951, and sentenced to death, the only two American civilians to be executed for espionage-related activity during the Cold War.

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Edith Fraenke of the Baum Gruppe

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Twenty-year-old Baum Gruppe member Edith Fraenkel was arrested and deported, first to Theresienstadt and then to her death at Auschwitz in 1944.

Institution: Yad Vashem, Jerusalem.

Twenty-year-old Baum Gruppe member Edith Fraenkel was arrested and deported, first to Theresienstadt and then to her death at Auschwitz in 1944.

Institution: Yad Vashem, Jerusalem.

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Lotte Rotholz from the Baum Gruppe

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The Baum Gruppe was characterized by a disproportionate number of very young members, especially young women. At the age of twenty, group member Lotte Rotholz (née Jastrow), pictured here, was sent to Auschwitz, where she was murdered.

Institution: Yad Vashem, Jerusalem.

The Baum Gruppe was characterized by a disproportionate number of very young members, especially young women. At the age of twenty, group member Lotte Rotholz (née Jastrow), pictured here, was sent to Auschwitz, where she was murdered.

Institution: Yad Vashem, Jerusalem.

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Monument to the Baum Gruppe in the Weissensee Cemetery, East Berlin

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Monument to the Baum Gruppe in the Weissensee cemetery, East Berlin. The text reads (top): "To the members of the Herbert Baum group executed in 1942/43"; (bottom): "They fell in the battle for peace and freedom."

Institution: Yad Vashem, Jerusalem.

Monument to the Baum Gruppe in the Weissensee cemetery, East Berlin. The text reads (top): "To the members of the Herbert Baum group executed in 1942/43"; (bottom): "They fell in the battle for peace and freedom."

Institution: Yad Vashem, Jerusalem.

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How to cite this page

Jewish Women's Archive. "Communism." (Viewed on February 12, 2016) <http://jwa.org/topics/communism>.

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