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Carol Gilligan

Carol Gilligan has broken new ground in psychology, challenging mainstream psychologists with her theory that accepted benchmarks of moral and personal developments were drawn to a male bias and do not apply to women. Gilligan proposed that women have different moral criteria and follow a different path in maturation. A psychologist who taught at Harvard and Cambridge, Gilligan brought a feminist perspective to challenge Freud and new life to the statement “The personal is political.”

Rosa Ginossar

Rosa Ginossar is known today largely for paving the path for women to serve as lawyers in Israel. Ginossar served as the second president of World WIZO (Women’s International Zionist Organization) and held a long list of important positions.

German Immigrant Period in the United States

The period 1820–1880 has generally been considered the era of German Jewish immigration to the United States. Issues of gender and family shaped this migration from the Germanic regions, and from other parts of Central and Eastern Europe from 1820 to 1880.

Germany: 1750-1945

To view German Jewish history from the Enlightenment through the Holocaust from a gender perspective deepens our understanding of history in general and provides us with a richer, more complex and more inclusive picture of the Jewish past.

Ruth Gay

With a few strokes of her pen, Ruth Glazer (later Gay) painted a vivid portrait of the culture of second-generation Jews in New York. As a free-lance writer and editor for over fifty years, she has explored the Jewish experience of both America and Germany.

Laura Geller

Among the few women rabbis ordained during the 1970s Laura Geller has been most prominent in shaping the impact of female religious leadership upon Judaism.

Helene Gans

Active throughout her life in labor movements and consumer rights, Helene Gans devoted herself to improving the lives of working Americans.

Ruth Gavison

A founding member of the Israel Association for Civil Rights (ACRI) since 1974, Professor Ruth Gavison specializes in legal theory, philosophy of human rights and the integration of justice, morals, society and ethics. She is an important figure in Israeli discourse on human rights, democracy and Israeli society in general.

Esther Frumkin

Esther (1880–1943) was the pseudonym of the Jewish educator, writer, and socialist-turned-communist, Malkah Lifchitz. Her married names were Frumkin and later Wichmann. An independent thinker and a unique woman in the Jewish labor movement, Esther devoted her life to leftist political activity in Russia and later the Soviet Union.

Henriette Fürth

Henriette Fürth succeeded in earning a much-needed income as a highly-regarded lecturer and journalist. In addition to publishing, Fürst found time to be involved in organizational life.


How to cite this page

Jewish Women's Archive. "Activism." (Viewed on November 28, 2015) <>.


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