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Primary Sources

Efficiently browse all of the primary source documents in Living the Legacy by keyword, type, or module.

Title Description Type Module Name
"Congressman, Civil Rights Icon John Lewis" Excerpts from Fresh Air Interview

Congressman John Lewis grew up in Alabama, the son of sharecroppers. His experience growing up in the deep South led to his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement where he chaired the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) from 1963-1966. In 1987, John Lewis became a Democratic congressman representing Georgia. As a politician he has continued to fight for civil rights causes. The excerpt below is taken from a 2009 interview by Terry Gross for the NPR program Fresh Air. It describes his youth, and work to end all types of discrimination.

Transcripts Civil Rights
Racial Pawns in the Battle for Same-Sex Marriage

Taylor Harris is an African American graduate student studying at Johns Hopkins University. In November 2009, she contributed the following to The Washington Post. In the article she argues against the equating of the Civil Rights Movement with the Gay Rights Movement.

Articles Civil Rights
"Not Only for Ourselves," Editorial, The Forward

This editorial printed in The Forward in December 2009 describes the need for service programs to actually serve others and not just sustain the good works of volunteers.

Articles Civil Rights
National Jewish Community Relations Advisory Council (NJCRAC) Position on Affirmative Action (adopted June 1975) as amended January 1981, Excerpt

In 1975, the National Jewish Community Relations Advisory Council (NJCRAC) adopted a position on affirmative action, which was later revised in 1981. This excerpt is taken from the 1981 amendment.

Legal Documents Civil Rights
Brief of Anti-Defamation League as Amicus Curiae in support of Marco DeFunis, et al., Excerpt

In 1971, Marco DeFunis, a white (Jewish) man, applied to the Washington University Law School and was denied admission. He, his wife, and parents brought a suit against the school claiming that he had been discriminated against. The original trial found in DeFunis’ favor, but the Supreme Court of Washington reversed the decision. Because DeFunis was Jewish and affirmative action was a heated issue in the Jewish community at the time, the case attracted a great deal of attention from Jewish organizations and the Jewish press—with a range of viewpoints expressed both in favor of and in opposition to affirmative action policies. In 1974, the case came before the Supreme Court and the Anti-Defamation League submitted a brief supporting the original decision. Below is an excerpt from that brief.

Legal Documents Civil Rights
Negro-Jewish Relation in the North, Excerpt on the Causes of Anti-Jewish Attitudes

This excerpt comes from a paper by Will Maslow delivered to the annual meeting of the Association of Jewish Community Relations Workers on January 11, 1960. The paper, which he marked as “confidential,” deals with anti-Semitic tendencies in the African American community and the development of anti-African American tendencies in the Jewish community. In this excerpt Maslow discusses what he viewed as the causes of "anti-Jewish" sentiments in the African American community.

Speeches Civil Rights
Negroes are Anti-Semitic Because They're Anti-White, Excerpt on the Roots of Anti-Semitism in the African American Community

In 1967, James Baldwin, an African American novelist, poet, and civil rights activist, wrote an article trying to explain why after all that Jews had done for the Civil Rights Movement some African Americans could be anti-Semitic. This excerpt describes the roots of anti-Semitism in African American communities.

Articles Civil Rights
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Position Paper: The Basis of Black Power, Excerpt

The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Council (SNCC – pronounced “snick”) was founded at Shaw University in North Carolina in 1960. SNCC played a major role in the civil rights movement, organizing and participating in many projects including Freedom Ride, Freedom Summer, and the March on Washington. Though originally working towards a goal of integration, in the mid-1960s many SNCC leaders began to promote a new focus on Black Power. In 1966, SNCC published a position paper on Black Power. This excerpt describes SNCC's view on the roles of African American and white activists in addition to a call for self-determination.

Documents Civil Rights
1969 Freedom Seder Exerpt on violence in the struggle for freedom

This excerpt comes from texts used at the 1969 Seder where Jews and African Americans came together to commemorate the first anniversary of Martin Luther King's assassination. In the excerpt Arthur Waskow describes the violence that had been used in previous struggles for freedom, including Exodus, the American Revolution and the Civil War.

Documents Civil Rights
Negroes Are Anti-Semitic Because They're Anti-White Excerpt on Jewish Suffering

In 1967, James Baldwin, a novelist, poet, and civil rights activist, wrote an article trying to explain why after all that Jews had done for the Civil Rights Movement some African Americans could be anti-Semitic.

Articles Civil Rights
Sukkot in Connecticut

Image is of a man and a woman beneath a tallit celebrating Sukkot.

Photographs Civil Rights
Simchat Torah

Image is of children and adults gathered around an open Torah that is being read during Simchat Torah. Adults hold a tallit aloft over the children and Torah.

Photographs Civil Rights
Letter to the Left, Excerpt

The excerpt is taken from Ellen Willis' essay, “Letter to the Left,” which was written in 1969 to explain the need for a movement focused specifically on women’s liberation. Whereas many on the Left identified capitalism as the source of all social problems and inequalities, Willis argued that patriarchy – the social system based on governance by or dominance of males – was the root of women’s oppression, and that women’s oppression would not be alleviated by dismantling capitalism alone. Willis submitted this letter to The Guardian, the leading national Left newspaper of the time, but the editor refused to publish it.

Articles Civil Rights
1969 Freedom Seder, Excerpt - Dayenu opposite

During Passover 1969, Jews and African Americans came together on the first anniversary of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s assassination to remember him. A Seder with new readings that connected the Jewish exodus from Egypt with the struggle for Civil Rights in America and Social Justice around the world seemed the perfect way to commemorate and celebrate. This short excerpt takes the Dayenu motif and re-writes it as the opposite - "it would not be sufficient."

Documents Civil Rights
We Are Coming Home, Excerpt

The Brooklyn Bridge Collective was small countercultural Jewish community. They wrote a newspaper called Brooklyn Bridge. This excerpt was taken from an article published in the first issue of the community's newspaper and described the new vision for Judaism held by the Collective.

Articles Civil Rights
Negro Revolution and the Jewish Community, Excerpt

On March 12, 1969, Leonard Fein addressed the Synagogue Council of America (an organization of American Synagogue associations) at Columbia University. His basic message was that the Jewish community had overreacted to black anti-Semitism. In this excerpt Fein encourages what he calls "Jewish assertiveness."

Speeches Civil Rights
Jewish Women Call for Change

An organization of Jewish feminists, Ezrat Nashim called for greater equality for women within the Conservative movement. The group’s name is a play on words. While it literally means “assistance of women” it was also the name of used to refer to the women’s section in synagogues in which women and men sit separately.. In 1972, Ezrat Nashim went to the Conservative Rabbinical Assembly meeting and shared their demands, which are described in this document.

Artifacts Civil Rights
March on Washington Button

Button advertising the March on Washington for Jobs & Freedom, August 28, 1963. There is an image of a black hand and a white hand shaking.

Ephemera Civil Rights
Photograph of the March on Washington featuring "We march for..." signs and Civil Rights Movement leaders

This United States Information Agency photograph of the March on Washington, August 28, 1963, shows civil rights and union leaders, including Martin Luther King Jr., Joseph L. Rauh Jr., Whitney Young, Roy Wilkins, A. Philip Randolph, and Walter Reuther.

Photographs Civil Rights
Excerpt of John Lewis' Speech delivered at the March on Washington

Excerpts taken from the speech given at the March on Washington, August 28, 1963. Lewis spoke as the leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. The cut portions were removed after a personal intervention by A. Philip Randolph persuaded Lewis to tone down the speech.

Speeches Civil Rights
"I Have a Dream..." Talmud Page

Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “I Have a Dream…” speech re-imagined as a Talmud Page — surrounded by Biblical references and Jewish parallels.

Speeches Civil Rights
Rabbi Joachim Prinz speech at the March on Washington

Rabbi Joachim Prinz, a refugee from Germany, was a leading Jewish social justice figure in the mid-20th century. Prinz delivered the following speech at the March on Washington. In it Prinz describes the oppression of Jews through out history as a reason many participated in Civil Rights Movement, and his belief that the greatest problem to be solved in the fight against oppression was that of silence amongst the onlookers.

Audio Recordings Civil Rights
Central Conference of American Rabbis at the March on Washington

Image features a crowd at the March on Washington. Men hold signs reading "Central Conference of American Rabbis."

Photographs Civil Rights
National Federation of Temple Youth at the March on Washington

Image of National Federation of Temple Youth (NFTY) participating in the March on Washington.

Photographs Civil Rights
The Emma Lazarus Federation of Jewish Women’s Clubs at the March on Washington

Image of two women in sun hats at the March on Washington. Behind them more women sit under a sign reading, "March on Washington for Jobs & Freedom / Emma Lazarus Federation of Jewish Women's Clubs."

Photographs Civil Rights
Sermon by Milton Grafman, September 19, 1963

In his sermon on Rosh Hashana morning, Rabbi Grafman of Temple Emanu-El expressed his horror at the violence and loss after the bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church and asserted that white citizens in Birmingham – Jews and Christians together– needed to help make things right.

Audio Recordings Civil Rights
Telegram from Abraham Joshua Heschel to President John F. Kennedy, June 16, 1963

In this telegram Abraham Joshua Heschel describes his beliefs on the role of religious clergy in the Civil Rights Movement.

Artifacts Civil Rights
Abraham Joshua Heschel on the Selma March, 1965

Photo of Abraham Joshua Heschel marching with other civil rights leaders.

Photographs Civil Rights
Southern Hospitality Was Not Extended Say R.I. Rabbis Who Marched in Alabama

The article describes Rabbi William G. Braude, Rabbi Saul Leeman, and Rabbi Nathan Rosen's visit to Montgomery, Alabama in the spring of 1965.

Articles Civil Rights
Why We Went: A Joint Letter from the Rabbis Arrested in St. Augustine

This document, a letter signed by a group of rabbis who were in jail together, was drafted overnight by Rabbi Eugene B. Borowitz. His rabbinic colleagues and Al Vorspan of the UAHC staff contributed to the revisions, and Vorspan saw to its distribution. The letter describes why these rabbis went to St. Augustine, what they hoped to accomplish and what occurred while there.

Documents Civil Rights
Rabbi Wax Sermon on Martin Luther King, Jr., April 5, 1968

Sermon given by Rabbi James A. Wax on Friday, April 5, 1968 at Temple Israel in Memphis, Tennessee on the occasion of the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Sermons Civil Rights
Letter to Chicky from Daddy

Letter to Vivian Leburg Rothstein (called "Chicky") from her father in which he describes his feelings toward, and fears about, her involvement in the Civil Rights Movement.

Letters Civil Rights
Statement by Carolyn Goodman, June 1965

Statement by Carolyn Goodman published in the New York Times.

Documents Civil Rights
Portraits from Wednesdays in Mississippi

This video clip looks at the different experiences of the Northern and Southern Wednesdays women through interviews with Beatrice “Buddy” Mayer (part of the Chicago team) and Elaine Crystal, who as a member of the Jackson, Mississippi team hosted Mayer when she came down.

Video Recordings Civil Rights
A Journey South

This video clip describes the danger the Wednesdays women encountered and reveals the dormant racism that existed in even some of the Wednesdays women. Susan Stedman and Doris V. Wilson of the Jackson team describe meeting the Northern women at the airport, with Klu Klux Klan members watching and spitting on the women as they arrived. Edith Savage Jennings, the first black women to meet with a group of white women in Jackson, tells of how after she (intentionally) removed her glove none of the women were willing to shake her hand.

Video Recordings Civil Rights
WIMS: A Model of Women’s Activism and Social Change

This clip addresses the significance of organizing women in particular, and the impact of relatively well-off white and black women from the North and South working together for social change. Includes observations by historians Debra Schultz and Deborah Gray White, as well as by Polly Cowan’s daughter, Holly Shulman, and her daughter-in-law, Rabbi Rachel Cowan.

Video Recordings Civil Rights
Wednesdays in Mississippi - Excerpts from the Report from Polly Cowan, Project Coordinator, 1964

Polly Cowan wrote a report at the end of the first summer of the Wednesdays in Mississippi project (WIMS) in which she described the group’s goals and their accomplishments. Two excerpts describe how WIMS began and how its purpose evolved.

Reports Civil Rights
Excerpts from Dorothy Height Oral History

The following excerpt comes from an oral history interview with WIMS founder Dorothy Height that was conducted by Polly Cowan’s daughter, Holly Cowan Shulman, for a project about Wednesdays in Mississippi. Excerpt from October 16, 2002 interview. (See Wednesdays in Mississippi: Civil Rights as Women's Work exhibit website.)

Transcripts Civil Rights
Excerpt from Sylvia Weinberg Radov Oral History

This excerpt comes from an oral history interview with Wednesdays in Mississippi (WIMS) participant Sylvia Weinberg Radov that was conducted by Anne Moore (the daughter of another WIMS participant) in Chicago in 2002 for a project about Wednesdays in Mississippi. In the excerpt Radov describes the purpose of WIMS, in her understanding, and what the women did while in Jackson, Mississippi.

Transcripts Civil Rights
Excerpt from Beatrice "Buddy" Cummings Mayer Oral History

This excerpt comes from an oral history interview with WIMS participant Beatrice “Buddy” Cummings Mayer by Holly Cowan Shulman (Polly Cowan’s daughter) in Chicago in 2002 for a project about Wednesdays in Mississippi. In it Mayer explains how the project was designed as a person-to-person experience.

Transcripts Civil Rights
Vicki Gabriner Oral History Excerpt, Jewish Participation in the Civil Rights Movement

Gabriner describes how her Jewish heritage led her to participate in social justice events.

Transcripts Civil Rights
Heather Booth statement excerpt on social values and Jewish tradition

Excerpt describes how Heather Booth learned social justice values through her experience growing up Jewish.

Transcripts Civil Rights
Rita Schwerner CORE application letter excerpt

Excerpts from Rita Schwerner's application letter to CORE's Freedom Summer project in 1964.

Documents Civil Rights
Freedom Summer excerpt, Why people participated

Excerpt from Sally Belfrage's book Freedom Summer describing why people chose to participate in the project.

Books Civil Rights
Rita Schwerner Statement to Newspapers on the Discovery of Her Husband’s Body on 4th August, 1964.

Schwerner's statement to the press on the discovery of her husband's, Michael Schwerner, body on August 4, 1964. The Schwerners had been participating the the Mississippi Freedom Summer Project.

Documents Civil Rights
Image of Heather Booth and Fannie Lou Hamer

Heather Booth playing guitar for Fannie Lou Hamer during the Freedom Summer Project in Mississippi, 1964.

Photographs Civil Rights
Vicki Gabriner Oral History Excerpt, Challenges

Vicki Gabriner discusses the challenges of doing Civil Rights work in her oral history interview with Judith Rosenbaum from July 20, 2000.

Transcripts Civil Rights
Letter to Mom and Dad from Bonnie

Letter from a young activist to her parents. In the letter "Bonnie" asks for understanding from her parents for her involvement in the Freedom Summer Project.

Letters Civil Rights
Letter to Dad from Sylvie

Letter describes Sylvie's reaction to the disappearance of civil rights workers Schwerner, Goodman and Chaney. Sylvie eats a meal with Rita Schwerner and thinks about the risks involved in the Movement.

Letters Civil Rights
Letter from Hattiesburg

Letter from a Freedom Summer participant describing the heartbreaking forms of discrimination he encountered. Author is not identified in the source material.

Letters Civil Rights
Letter to Jon from Heather Tobis Booth

Letter from Heather Tobis Booth to her brother Jon. The letter describes the fear she and other activists experienced while organizing for civil rights during the Freedom Summer Project.

Letters Civil Rights
Letter to Mother and Father from Ellen

Letter from an Freedom Summer Project activist to her parents about the responsibility she feels toward the civil rights movement and those it represents.

Letters Civil Rights
Skipwith v. New York Board of Education Official Ruling

Excerpts from the official ruling in de facto segregation case Skipwith vs. the NYC Board of Education. Ruling by Judge Justine Wise Polier.

Legal Documents Civil Rights
Letter to Justine Wise Polier from Annie Stein, December 23, 1958

Letter to Justice Justine Wise Polier from Annie Stein (writing as the Secretary of the NAACP Schools Workshop), congratulating her on the decision in the Skipwith v. New York City Board of Education.

Letters Civil Rights
"Wasting Time"

The excerpts below come from one of a series of columns written by Amsterdam News editor James L. Hicks in response to the Skipwith decision.

Articles Civil Rights
Letter from Mrs. LOK to Justine Wise Polier

Letter written to Justine Wise Polier in reaction to the Skipwith v. New York City Board of Education ruling. The author expresses racist views and supports teachers choosing which schools they teach in, even to the detriment of school children. (Spelling errors/typos have been corrected.)

Letters Civil Rights
Letter from Justine Wise Polier to Mrs. LOK

Letter in response to Mrs. LOK's correspondence on the Skipwith ruling. Justice Polier describes the ideal America she is striving for and the duty she feels toward ending discrimination.

Letters Civil Rights
Excerpts from the Boston Globe series "The Judith Frieze Story"

A series of excerpts from the Boston Globe eight article feature story on Judith Frieze and her experience as a Freedom Rider in the summer of 1961. She along with fellow activists were arrested and jailed in Jackson, Mississippi. Their purpose was to test Boynton v. Virginia, a Supreme Court case ordering the integration of restaurants and waiting rooms in bus terminals serving interstate bus routes.

Articles Civil Rights
Newspaper clipping of Judith Frieze article from the Boston Globe

Newspaper clippings of Boston Globe article about Judith Frieze's experience as a Freedom Rider in 1961.

Articles Civil Rights
Judith Frieze Wright interview excerpt

This video clip is an excerpt of an interview with Judith Frieze Wright conducted by oral historian Jayne Guberman, as part of JWA's 2010 Institute for Educators.

Video Recordings Civil Rights
Traveling by Grace Paley

Excerpts from the essay "Traveling" describe Paley's experiences with race with traveling.

Essays Civil Rights
The Vertical Negro Plan

Excerpt from Harry Golden's satirical essay "The Golden Vertical Negro Plan."

Essays Civil Rights
Letter Home from Lew

Letter describes the experience of a young northern white activist during the first few hours of orientation and training for the Mississippi Freedom Summer. The training program took place at Western College in Oxford, Ohio.

Letters Civil Rights
Letter to Peggy from Ellen

Letter describing the author's experiences at the Mississippi Freedom Summer training sessions and in growing up. The author speaks about her feelings about race and class.

Letters Civil Rights
An Orphan in History excerpt, Jewish Experience

This excerpt describes the change in world view Paul Cowan experienced while working as a journalist.

Books Civil Rights
Stayed on Freedom

The excerpt is from Melanie Kaye/Kantrowitz essay which shared some of her views on why she got involved with the Civil Rights Movement.

Essays Civil Rights
An Orphan in History excerpt, memories of Polly Cowan

This excerpt from An Orphan in History: Retrieving a Jewish Legacy describes the author's mother Polly Cowan and the Jewish values he inherited from her.

Books Civil Rights
This I Believe - Justine Wise Polier

Justine Wise Polier, the daughter of Rabbi Stephen Wise, worked on behalf of the underprivileged and became the first female judge in New York City when she was appointed to the Children’s Court. In the 1950s she helped focus attention on the issue of de facto segregation in New York City schools. As part of broadcast journalist Edward R. Murrow’s recurring “This I Believe” radio news segment, Justine Wise Polier discussed the beliefs that motivated her.

Transcripts Civil Rights
Negro-Jewish Relations in the North excerpt

The following is an excerpt from a paper Maslow read at the annual meeting of the Association of Jewish Community Relations Workers on January 11, 1960. He sent the paper to his colleagues at American Jewish Congress in preparation for their dinner meeting with African American leaders the following month. The paper, which he marked as “confidential,” deals with anti-Semitic tendencies in the African American community and the development of anti-African American tendencies in the Jewish community.

Speeches Civil Rights
Letter from Hebrew Union Congregation to Rabbi Eisendrath, May 1, 1956

Letter from Hebrew Union Congregation in Greenville, Mississippi disputing the position of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations (and its President, Rabbi Maurice N. Eisendrath) on segregation.

Letters Civil Rights
Letter from Hebrew Union Congregation to Union of American Hebrew Congregations, November 7, 1963

Letter to the Board of Trustees of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations from Bernard Goodman (on behalf of the Hebrew Union Congregation) on the HUC's displeasure on the invitation of Martin Luther King, Jr. to speak at the UAHC Biennial.

Letters Civil Rights
Letter from Rabbi Eisendrath to Bernard Goodman, November 13, 1963

Letter between Rabbi Maurice N. Eisendrath, president of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations and the president of the Board of Trustees of Union Hebrew Congregation, Bernard Goodman. The letter is a response to a letter dated November 7, 1963. It discusses the invitation to Martin Luther King to address the UAHC Biennial. Eisendrath then goes on to state that more must be done to support the Civil Rights Movement even if it angers congregations.

Letters Civil Rights
Neo-Nazi demonstration

Image of neo-Nazi men (identified by the arm bands they are wearing) demonstrating against the NAACP.

Photographs Civil Rights
The Peddler's Grandson: Growing Up Jewish In Mississippi excerpt

Edward Cohen describes what it was like to grow up with the dual identity of a southern Jew, who is viewed as an outsider both in the south and with in the Jewish community.

Books Civil Rights
The Provincials: A Personal History of Jews in the South excerpt

Eli Evans grew up in Durham, NC. In this excerpt from “The Maids and Black Jesus” in his book The Provincials: A Personal History of Jews in the South, Evans describes the relationship
his family had with its black maids.

Books Civil Rights
Stephen S. Wise statement to the Sub-committee of the Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare

Stephen S. Wise was a Reform rabbi who had dedicated his life to issues of social justice within and outside of the Jewish community. He was one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and also served as the president of the American Jewish Congress. His daughter Justine Wise Polier also worked on behalf of underprivileged people. The quote below comes from Rabbi Wise’s testimony, as President of American Jewish Congress, during a Senate sub-committee hearing relating to discrimination in employment. Circa 1947 [exact date unknown].

Speeches Civil Rights
Comments by Rabbi Milton Grafman about national Jewish leadership and the position of southern Jews

Like many southern rabbis, Milton Grafman found himself caught between the realities of southern Jewish life and civil rights activists. He worked towards integration, but was opposed to disruptive protests that could lead to violence and undermine local, more moderate efforts. In the midst of the Civil Rights Movement, Grafman said the following in an interview with a rabbinic student at Hebrew Union College, who was working on a paper entitled “The Southern Rabbi and Civil Rights.”

Transcripts Civil Rights
Excerpts from panel discussion reflecting back on the civil rights era in Jackson, Mississippi

In 2001, the organization Facing History and Ourselves hosted a panel discussion with three individuals who had lived in Jackson, MI during the time of the Civil Rights Movement. The following excerpts are taken from responses by the three panelists to a question about the experiences of Jews in their community who were not involved in the Civil Rights Movement.

Transcripts Civil Rights
Temple Bombing, Atlanta, Georgia

On October 12, 1958, the Hebrew Benevolent Congregation Temple in Atlanta, GA, known simply as The Temple, was bombed. The bombing took place early in the morning and no one was injured. Claiming responsibility for the bombing, a voice identified as “General Gordon of the Confederate Underground” told a member of the press: "We bombed a temple in Atlanta. This is the last empty building in Atlanta we will bomb. All nightclubs refusing to fire their Negro employees will also be blown up. We are going to blow up all Communist organizations. Negroes and Jews are hereby declared aliens." The group is thought to have been targeting The Temple’s Rabbi, who was a known supporter of civil rights.

Photographs Civil Rights
Rabbi Perry Nussbaum and wife after bombing of their home

Photograph of Rabbi Perry Nussbaum and his wife after bombing of their home in Jackson, MS, which was presumed to be related to his involvement with civil rights. Nussbaum was the rabbi of Temple Beth Israel.

Photographs Civil Rights
Any Jews?

Quotation from "They Sent Us This White Girl" where Baker writes about her Grandmother Alice's view of the world as split between Jews and non-Jews. The author describes this as her "first awareness of culture as a system of belonging..."

Books Civil Rights
Your People

Quotation describes the experience Roberta Geller and Rabbi Perry Nussbaum have upon meeting each other in the Hinds County Jail in 1965.

Books Civil Rights
What I learned in Alabama about Yarmulkes

Excerpt from the Rosh Hashanah 1965 sermon by Rabbi William G. Braude of Temple Beth-El in Providence, Rhode Island. In this sermon, Rabbi Braude explores whether or not to wear a head covering.

Sermons Civil Rights
My Personal Story: Kimchee on the Seder Plate

This essay describes the author's exploration of her Jewish identity as an Asian-American woman.

Essays Civil Rights
Ashkenazi Eyes

Essay reflecting on the author's experience as a multiethinic Jew. Iny is of Mizrahi and Ashkenazi heritage.

Essays Civil Rights
Claire

Photograph of a teenage girl with dark curly hair. She is wearing a pink sweater and sitting on a couch.

Photographs Civil Rights
Jacob

Photograph of a teenage boy sitting on steps. He wears a white t-shirt, and jeans.

Photographs Civil Rights
Worksheet: Fact, Feeling, Idea, Question

A worksheet created to accompany Lesson 2, Part 1 of the Living the Legacy Labor Module.

Ephemera Labor
Photo of a Sweatshop

A black and white photograph of a small sweatshop, similar to those run out of a small shop or even a residence.

Photographs Labor
Photo of a Small Garment Factory

A black and white photograph of a small garment factory. Workers sit at rows of machines while bosses oversee them.

Photographs Labor
Photo of a Large Garment Factory

A black and white photograph of a the most infamous type of factory, a large room with hundreds of machines and people working in very close quarters.

Photographs Labor
Excerpt from Pauline Newman’s unpublished memoir, in which she describes the monotony and hardships of garment work.

An excerpt from Pauline Newman's unpublished memoir describing the experience of working in the garment industry.

Papers Labor
Letter from "A Shopgirl"

From A Bintel Brief: Letters to the Jewish Daily Forward by Isaac Metzker, translated by Isaac Metzker, copyright 1971 by Isaac Metzker. Foreword and notes copyright 1971 by Doubleday, a division of Bantam, Doubleday, Dell Publishing Group, Inc. p. 72.

Articles Labor
The Factory Girl's Danger

A transcription of an article excerpted from The Outlook, April 15, 1911.

Articles Labor
Preliminary Report of the Factory Investigating Commission

An excerpt from a report by the New York (State) Factory Investigating Commission.

Government Documents Labor
Excerpt from Pauline Newman’s unpublished memoir, in which she recalls the beginning of the 1909 garment workers’ strike

An excerpt from Pauline Newman’s unpublished memoir in which she recalls the beginning of the 1909 garment workers’ strike.

Papers Labor
Rose Schneiderman’s Women’s Trade Union League Report

Rose Schneiderman’s Report to the Women’s Trade Union League on her organizing efforts in 1908.

Reports Labor
Ladies Tailors Strikers

Black and white photograph of two women wearing strike sashes on a crowded street.

Photographs Labor
Sarah Rozner discusses striking and making a living

An excerpt from Sarah Rozner's unpublished memoir in which she describes striking with her siblings and using her wages to support her family.

Papers Labor
Rose Schneiderman describes her experience as a department store errand girl

An excerpt from Rose Schneiderman's memoir in which she describes being an errand girl for a department store.

Books Labor
Rose Schneiderman describes her work as a lining maker

An excerpt from Rose Schneiderman's memoir in which she describes her work sewing linings into caps.

Books Labor
Pauline Newman describes working at the Triangle

A passage from Pauline Newman's personal papers in which she describes the experience of working at the infamous Triangle Waist Company.

Papers Labor
Rose Cohen recalls her first day on the job in a piecework shop

In an excerpt from her memoir, Rose Cohen recalls her first day on the job in a piecework shop.

Books Labor
Excerpt about the ILGWU from LIFE Magazine

Excerpt from "ILGWU: A Great and Good Union Points the Way for America's Labor Movement" LIFE Magazine, August 1, 1938.

Articles Labor
Garment workers eating together before union-sponsored class

Photograph of garment workers eating together before a union-sponsored class.

Photographs Labor
Garment workers rehearse a chorus for ILGWU's own theater, Labor Stage

A black and white photograph of Garment workers rehearsing a chorus for ILGWU's own theater, Labor Stage.

Photographs Labor
Social Psychology Lecture outside Unity House

A black and white photograph of a lecture on social psychology given outdoors on ILGWU's Unity House grounds, August, 1926.

Photographs Labor
Ale Brider

An audio recording of The Yiddish Community Chorus of Boston Workmen's Circle singing "Ale Brider" accompanied by transcript and English translation of the lyrics.

Audio Recordings Labor
Mayn Rue Plats

An audio recording of The Yiddish Community Chorus of Boston Workmen's Circle singing "Mayn Rue Plats" accompanied by transcript and English translation of the lyrics.

Audio Recordings Labor
"Bread and Roses" poem

Text of the Lyrics to the song "Bread and Roses."

Poems Labor
"The Return from Toil"

A photograph of a black and white illustration on the cover of The Masses from July 1913. The illustration shows six women wearing period dress walking home from work.

Illustrations Labor
Excerpt from "Bread Givers" beginning “You heartless thing!”

An Excerpt from the book Bread Givers by Anzia Yezierska.

Books Labor
Excerpt on hats from Clara Lemlich article about 1909 strike

An excerpt about hats from the New York Evening Journal, November 26, 1909.

Newspapers Labor
Excerpt about clothing from Sadie Frowne article, "The Story of a Sweatshop Girl"

An excerpt about clothing from Sadie Frowne article, "The Story of a Sweatshop Girl."

Newspapers Labor
Women Strikers Selling Newspapers for a Living

A black and white photograph of women selling newspapers.

Photographs Labor
Deuteronomy/Devarim 24:14-15

An excerpt from the Torah about the way to treat workers. The Torah is a traditional Jewish Text.

Books Labor
Mishnah, Bava Metzia 7:1

A commentary about what an employer needs to provide for his or her employees. The Mishnah is a traditional Jewish text.

Books Labor
Mishnah, Pirkei Avot 3:21

A well-known excerpt from the Mishnah from "The Writings of the Fathers." The Mishnah is a traditional Jewish text.

Books Labor
"The Return from Toil"

A photograph of a black and white illustration on the cover of The Masses from July 1913. The illustration shows six women wearing period dress walking home from work.

Illustrations Labor
Sarah Rozner recalls "testing" her mother

In an excerpt from her unpublished memoir, Sarah Rozner describes introducing her mother to union activism.

Papers Labor
Rose Schneiderman describes the strength of girls and women

Rose Schneiderman describes the shop girls' involvement in strikes in an article in The Independent newspaper.

Newspapers Labor
Rose Schneiderman explains keeping some of her earnings

In her memoir, All For One, Rose Schneiderman explains her mother's reaction to Rose's decision to keep some of her earnings for herself.

Books Labor
Bread Givers Excerpt: "I am an American!"

A scene from the book Bread Givers depicting the main character in a confrontation with her father about being independent.

Books Labor
Letter from "J.B."

A letter from J.B. to the Editor of The Forward about marrying a "freethinking" girl with religious parents.

Books Labor
Camp Kinderland, Bunk 25

A photograph of campers at Camp Kinderland stand outside Bunk 25.

Photographs Labor
Workers tending the vegetable garden at Camp Kinder Ring

A photograph of workers tending the vegetable garden at Camp Kinder Ring, founded in 1927, on Sylvan Lake, in New York.

Photographs Labor
Exodus/Shemot 22:20

Passage from Exodus/Shemot about oppressing the stranger. The Torah is a traditional Jewish text.

Books Labor
An appeal for Help

A letter from a reader to the editor of the Forward asking for help with problems relating to unemployment.

Books Labor
"A Challenge to Know and Tell"

In this excerpt from The House on Henry Street, Lillian Wald describes the moment that sparked the creation of Henry Street Settlement House in 1893.

Books Labor
Seal of the National Women's Trade Union League

An illustration of the Seal of the National Women's Trade Union League.

Illustrations Labor
Sarah Rozner's role in the 1915 strike

In this passage from her personal papers, Sarah Rozner recalls her role providing union support during the 1915 strike.

Papers Labor
"What We Learned at Unity House."

In this excerpt from Common Sense and A Little Fire, Pauline Newman is quoted as she describes what union members learn at Unity House, an ILGWU camp.

Books Labor
Strike of Cloak Makers

A plack and white photograph of men and women cloak makers holding picket signs.

Photographs Labor
Exodus/Shemot 22:20

Passage from Exodus/Shemot about oppressing the stranger. The Torah is a traditional Jewish text.

Books Labor
Leviticus/Vayikra 19:13

A passage from Leviticus/Vayikra about witholding wages. The Torah is a traditional Jewish text.

Books Labor
Deuteronomy/Devarim 24:14-15

An excerpt from the Torah about the way to treat workers. The Torah is a traditional Jewish Text.

Books Labor
Mishnah, N’darim 49b

Commentary from the Mishnah about the honor of work. The Mishnah is a traditional Jewish text.

Books Labor
Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia 83a

A passage about how workers should be treated. The Talmud is a traditional Jewish text.

Books Labor
Excerpt from the Living Wage Teshuvah

A teshuvah (legal position) about paying workers a living wage by Rabbi Jill Jacobs, passed by the Conservative Movement's Committee on Jewish Law and Standards on May 28, 2008. Teshuvot (legal positions) are interpretations of laws based on traditional Jewish texts.

Legal Documents Labor
Excerpts from "Who Cleans Your House?"

An excerpt from an article in Lilith magazine discussing the treatment of household workers hired by Jews.

Magazine Clippings Labor
Events of May 11, 1902-New York Times

A transcription from The New York Times describing the Kosher Meat Boycott.

Newspapers Labor
Events of May 13, 1902-New York Times

A transcription from The New York Times describing the Kosher Meat Boycott.

Newspapers Labor
Events of May 14, 1902-Yidishes Tageblatt

A transcription from The Yidishes Tageblat describing the Kosher Meat Boycott.

Newspapers Labor
Events of May 14, 1902-Forward

A transcription from The Jewish Daily Forward describing the Kosher Meat Boycott.

Newspapers Labor
Events of May 15, 1902-New York Times

A transcription from the Forward Describing the Kosher Meat Boycott.

Newspapers Labor
Events of May 17, 1902-Yidishes Tageblat

A transcription from The Yidishes Tageblat describing the Kosher Meat Boycott.

Newspapers Labor
Events of May 17, 1902-Forward

A transcription from the Forward describing the Kosher Meat Boycott.

Newspapers Labor
Events of May 17, 1902-New York Times

A transcription from The New York Times describing the Kosher Meat Boycott.

Newspapers Labor
Events of May 18, 1902-New York Times

A transcription from The New York Times describing the Kosher Meat Boycott.

Newspapers Labor
Events of May 25, 1902-New York Times

A transcription from The New York Times describing the Kosher Meat Boycott.

Newspapers Labor
New Joan of Arc Leads Rent Strike

An article describing the Rent Strike of 1907 and Pauline Newman's involvement.

Newspapers Labor
Genesis/Bereishit 1:26-30

A passage from Genesis/Bereishit about God creating people. The Torah is a traditional Jewish text. Translation from Soncino Classics, Version 2.2.

Books Labor
Deuteronomy/Devarim 8:7-10

A passage from Deuteronomy/Devarim about blessing the Land God has given people. The Torah is a tradtional Jewish text. Translation from Soncino Classics, Version 2.2.

Books Labor
Birkat HaMazon (Grace After Meals)

Text from Birkat HaMazon, the Blessing after Meals. Birkat HaMazon is a traditional Jewish text.

Books Labor
Shulchan Arukh, 16th Century

A passage from Shulchan Arukh, the Jewish Code of Law, describing the laws of Kashrut (dietary laws). The Shulchan Aruch is a traditional Jewish text. Translation from Soncino Classics, Version 2.2.

Books Labor
Avot de Rabbi Natan 31:1

A commentary on the Talmud discussing the value of eating food one grows one's self. The Talmud is a traditional Jewish text. Translation from Soncino Classics, Version 2.2.

Books Labor
Mission from Kayam Farm

An excerpt from the Kayam Farm website articulating the mission of Kayam Farm.

Web Labor
Jews and Farming, Time Magazine

An excerpt from Time Magazine describing the Jewish religious motivations behind agricultural work.

Magazine Clippings Labor
About the Jewish Farm School

A description of the Jewish Farm School taken from the Jewish Farm School website.

Web Labor
About Scott and Tanya

Scott writes about his family on the Jewish Farmers of America wiki page.

Web Labor
Jewish Farming and Marriage Prospects

An account from a Jewish American Farmer, originally published in the Forward.

Newspaper Clippings Labor
Leaflet for a Jewish Farming Settlement Organization

Text from a leaflet calling for the establishment of an organization to fund the settlement of Jewish immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe on farms across the country.

Printed Materials Labor
History of the company Earthbound Farms

History of the company Earthbound Farms as written on the Earthbound Farms website.

Web Labor
Yiddish advertisement for a lecture by Goldman on ""Tzedakah," or Charity

Printed Materials Labor
Advertisement for "'Yom Kipur' Picnic" organized by Goldman and her colleagues

A black and white magazine clipping written in English advertising a picnic for freethinkers and radicals.

Magazine Clippings Labor
Excerpt of Ayn Rand’s testimony before HUAC, October 20, 1947

An excerpt from the transcript of Ayn Rand's interview with Mr. Robert E. Stripling, Chief Investigator of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC).

Transcripts Labor
Memo Regarding Propaganda Efforts from the American Jewish Committee

Excerpts from a memo written by the American Jewish Committee outlining a strategy for combatting anti-semitic sentiments resulting from McCarthy-era actions against Jewish radicals.

Reports Labor
Gerda Lerner writes about the Communist Party and the Hollywood 10

In an excerpt from her autobiography, Fireweed, Gerda Lerner describes her motivations for joining the Communist Party and the emotional effects that government investigation had on her and her colleagues.

Books Labor

How to cite this page

Jewish Women's Archive. "Primary Sources." (Viewed on August 30, 2014) <http://jwa.org/teach/livingthelegacy/documents>.

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