Program from Szold's religious confirmation at Oheb Shalom congregation, 1875
The English and German on the program indicate the mixture of cultures and languages at Benjamin Szold's Oheb Shalom congregation which had been founded by German-speaking immigrants. Confirmation was introduced as a Jewish ritual by early nineteenth-century German reformers seeking to modernize Judaism. Confirmation services became a feature of acculturated nineteenth-century American congregations whether Reform or Orthodox.
Jewish Women's Archive. "Program from Szold's religious confirmation at Oheb Shalom congregation, 1875." (Viewed on December 13, 2013) <http://jwa.org/media/program-from-szolds-religious-confirmation-at-oheb-shalom-congregation-1875>.