The Encyclopedia features over 1,700 biographies, 300 thematic essays, and 1,400 photographs and illustrations on a wide range of Jewish women through the centuries -- from Gertrude Berg to Gertrude Stein; Hannah Greenebaum Solomon to Hannah Arendt; the Biblical Ruth to Ruth Bader Ginsburg.
Women of the Wall (WOW), a group of women who have asserted women’s right to pray at the Western Wall in Jerusalem, have struggled against personal violence and public opprobrium since 1988.
The scene of Miriam with her chorus of women drummers and dancers is echoed in several other instances in which song, dance, and drums appear in connection with women musicians.
American ORT was founded as a males-only organization in 1922. Women’s American ORT (WAO) was founded October 12, 1927, to assist ORT in providing financial support to the ORT program serving Eastern European Jews.
One of the main effects of ghetto life on individuals was the deterioration in their health. The state of women’s health in the ghetto was dictated in most cases by the unusual circumstances under which every ghetto existed.
Women’s League for Conservative Judaism is the national organization of Conservative sisterhoods established by Mathilde Schechter in 1918 as the National Women’s League of the United Synagogue. Schechter continued the work begun by her husband, Solomon Schechter, who had called for women to assume a role in the newly established United Synagogue of America. As founding president (1918–1919), she envisioned an organization that would be the coordinating body of Conservative synagogue sisterhoods and inspired Women’s League to promote an agenda whose mission was the perpetuation of traditional Judaism in America through the home, synagogue, and community.
The history of Women’s Studies (WS) in Israel cannot be examined without considering the related history of the “New Women’s Liberation” movement which began at the University of Haifa in 1970 (Safir et al.). Women immigrants from the United States and other English-speaking countries, who had believed that Israel was an egalitarian country, discovered that their expectations clashed strongly with the reality of women’s situation. This dissonance resulted in their creation of, and participation in, consciousness-raising groups that were the impetus for the new movement.
Jewish women have played an impressive part in creating women’s studies as an academic discipline in the United States.
Helen Rosen Woodward is best known for her contribution to the world of advertising and is generally believed to be the first female account executive in the United States.
This article discusses the many types of education Jewish working women received, focusing on the 1910s through the 1930s, the height of the workers’ education movement in the United States.
Rose Wortis was an Eastern European immigrant needleworker who devoted her life to working-class organizing and the Left.
Spurred to publish, in the first instance, as a response to the concerted campaigning of Christian conversionists, women writers were the first Anglo-Jews to produce literature on Jewish themes in England.
Siddy Wronsky is among the pioneers of professional social work and one of the early social work educators. In spite of her remarkable accomplishments and contributions, particularly in the area of the developing social case work as one of the traditional practice methods, she has not received as much publicity as some others in similar roles. She began her career in Germany and was one of the founders of social work education in Palestine.
The documents of the Cairo Genizah rarely contain enough material on specific individuals for the scholar to build up a detailed portrait. One exception is Karima bat ‘Ammar (Amram) the banker, son of Ezra, from Alexandria. She is better known as “al-Wuhsha the Broker” (a name which could be translated as “Desirée” or “Untamed”), and she lived at the end of the eleventh century and into the twelfth. In a world where women were expected to be gainfully employed, Wuhsha is a prototype of the successful independent businesswoman, moving easily from the world of women into that of men.
Frieda Wunderlich, a prominent economist and politician in Germany, became the only woman faculty member of the New School for Social Research in New York when it was established in 1933 as a haven for academic refugees from Nazism. She achieved international recognition for her research and publications on labor and social policy, including women’s work.
Marjorie Wyler was a pioneer in the presentation of Judaism to the American public. Her involvement in religious broadcasting, coupled with decades of public relations work, has made her an advocate for the ethics of social justice inherent in Judaism.
Rosalind Wiener Wyman was, in her words, “born a Democrat.” She was the youngest person ever elected to the Los Angeles City Council and one of the youngest elected officials of a major United States city.
Gussie Edelman Wyner was an early leader of the Boston Jewish community and a national leader of Hadassah who is credited with creating the idea of life memberships in women’s organizations and with establishing the first chapter of Junior Hadassah.
From the 1960s, Yahil played a regular role in other aspects of Holocaust study. Several of her articles were groundbreaking and served as points of departure for the developing field of Holocaust studies and Holocaust instruction in universities, for example in the areas of Jewish resistance in the Holocaust; comparative studies between the Netherlands and Romania, and the Netherlands and Denmark; and Jews in concentration camps in Germany. She also offered a scathing criticism of the revisionist edition of Eichmann’s memoirs. In order to comprehend the broader picture, Yahil emphasized the Jewish aspect of the Holocaust and insisted on the importance of western Europe.
Miriam Yalan-Stekelis’s children’s poems have become an integral part of the cultural repertoire of kindergartens and schools in Israel, reflecting and shaping the everyday lives of children both past and present.
Rosalyn Yalow had two strikes against her in her effort to become a physicist: She was a Jew and a woman. She persevered, and not only earned a career in science and many awards—including a Nobel Prize—but changed the medical world with the introduction of radioimmunoassay.
Berta Yampolsky's story is the story of the Israel Ballet, which began from nothing in a country where modern dance ruled. She was the Ballet's founder and now serves as its artistic director.
One of the most prominent and influential artists of Mexico, Mariana Yampolsky was born on September 6, 1925 in Chicago. While her first art medium in Mexico was printmaking, in 1948 she turned from engraving to photography.
How to cite this page
Jewish Women's Archive. "Encyclopedia." (Viewed on October 23, 2014) <http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/toc>.