The Encyclopedia features over 1,700 biographies, 300 thematic essays, and 1,400 photographs and illustrations on a wide range of Jewish women through the centuries -- from Gertrude Berg to Gertrude Stein; Hannah Greenebaum Solomon to Hannah Arendt; the Biblical Ruth to Ruth Bader Ginsburg.
Born into a family with a strong Zionist tradition and pioneer spirit, Ruth Sperling has kept this thread firmly woven through a life dedicated to scientific research. Ruth Sperling's most important scientific achievement was her co-discovery, with her husband, of the 3-D structure of spliceosomes, the cell's "machinery" for chopping up and re-attaching pieces of DNA to create its requisite assortment of functional proteins.
Nancy Spero was a figurative artist concerned with difference and the representation of the body.
The Spewacks’ early plays—Poppa, Spring Song, and War Song—deal with a variety of social issues, among them problems facing new immigrants, some of whom are Jewish. They focus on the clash of cultures, the effect of Americanization on traditional ways, and disenchantment with the elusive American dream. Who better than Bella Spewack, who has “seen it all,” to write about such things?
Dora Spiegel rendered distinguished service in many fields: in the organization of league sisterhoods, in education, and in publications that stimulated women’s loyalty to the synagogue and the Jewish home. She helped found the Women’s Institute of Jewish Studies at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America and influenced the lives of countless Jewish women and children.
A native of America, yet educated in Europe, Spiegelberg was a nineteenth-century settler of New Mexico and a twentieth-century progressive reformer in New York City.
Sabina Spielrein, a pioneer active in the early stages of the birth of psychoanalysis who made significant contributions to the field, was the first person to propose the thesis about instinctual life, which Freud later adapted.
As a sixteen-year-old ballet dancer at the Royal Ballet School in London, Phyllis Spira was hailed as a future Alicia Markova. On the brink of a successful career abroad, however, she elected to return to her home in South Africa where for many years she came to occupy center stage as South Africa’s prima ballerina.
Spirituality can be defined as life lived in the presence of God. It embraces not only traditional and formal modes of religious expression, but also more informal individual and communal efforts to remain mindful of the sacred in all aspects of experience.
A leading member of the Law Department of the City of New York for seventy years, Edith Spivack served as a pioneer female lawyer and a role model for generations of women.
Constance Amberg Sporborg was a career clubwoman who dedicated her life to the advancement of women’s rights, immigrant settlement, international organizations, and world peace.
While it was no easy task for women to integrate successfully into the world of modern competitive sports, there is currently a marked increase in the number of competitive women athletes throughout the world. A similar development, though slower and with more modest achievements, has also occurred in Jewish sports.
From the 1890s, despite fierce resistance, German women increasingly participated in gymnastics, games and other sporting activities.
The ways in which females participated in sporting life within both the immigrant and the wider culture reveal how women’s sports activities at times promoted assimilation yet also generated discord within the generational, gender, class and ethnic context of their lives in the United States.
Dawn Steel's merchandising prowess became legendary and attracted the attention of studio head Michael Eisner, who offered her a chance to produce films. In 1982 Steel set out to persuade her employers to allow her to produce Flashdance. This huge success would be the first of a long line of successes that resulted in Steel’s ascent to President of Production when Eisner left the studio. She became the second female studio production head in studio history.
Alicia Steimberg’s novels deal humorously with difficult personal topics and the social and economic chaos in her country. Alicia Steimberg’s life forms the framework and informs the themes of her satirical and irreverent novels and short stories.
Mollie Steimer, a leading anarchist and advocate for the rights of political prisoners, was a codefendant in one of the most publicized antiradical trials in American history.
Gertrude Stein, the American modernist writer, was an international celebrity, an artistic iconoclast, and a self-proclaimed genius.
As a self-proclaimed feminist and a Jewish professional who looked beyond her own people, Stein’s influence was felt by Jewish and non-Jewish individuals in needy communities throughout the western world.
Gloria Steinem, who exemplifies the Second Wave of American Feminism, began her career as a journalist writing under a man's name. She went on to co-found Ms., the first feminist periodical with a national readership. An advocacy journalist, she writes passionately about issues of women's empowerment and gender, racial and economic equality.
A suffragist who encouraged newly enfranchised women to go to the polls together to avoid harassment, Pauline Perlmutter Steinem was the first woman elected to the Toledo Board of Education. Her legacy of social activism can be seen in her granddaughter, Gloria Steinem.
Judith Steiner-Freud, herself a graduate of the Henrietta Szold Hadassah School of Nursing, became the director of her alma mater, as well as deputy dean of nursing in the medical faculty of Hadassah and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and thus had an important influence on the development of nursing education and practice in Israel.
The process of projecting ideas and fantasies is called stereotyping. Scholars have repeatedly demonstrated that stereotypes, in fact, have more to teach about the “stereotyper” than the “stereotyped.” In relations between minorities and majorities, particularly when a dominant group suppresses and limits another, those stereotypes play a crucial role in rationalizing the rights of the powerful over the powerless and in justifying why a group is despised.
The eminent physiologist and biochemist Lina Solomonovna Stern's curriculum vitae is testimony to her vigor and her incredible energy and immense working ability.
In September 1954, an inaugural class of thirty-two students enrolled at Stern College for Women, as Yeshiva University opened the first liberal arts college in America for women under Jewish auspices.
Bessie Cleveland Stern is most recognized for her work as statistician for the Maryland Board of Education. She collected and interpreted data about the Maryland school system from 1921 through 1948, and school officials turned to her for information to support appropriations measures and proposed changes in state laws relating to the schools.
How to cite this page
Jewish Women's Archive. "Encyclopedia." (Viewed on April 25, 2015) <http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/toc>.