Jennifer Tammi is a Ph.D. candidate in the History Department at Columbia University. Her specialty is twentieth-century U.S. history with interests in women’s history, labor, and immigration history. She earned a B.A. in U.S. history at Gustavus Adolphus College; an M.A. in women’s history at Sarah Lawrence College; and an M.A. in U.S. history from Rutgers University. Her dissertation, Minding Our Own Business: Community, Consumers and Cooperation, traces the rise and fall of the first wave of the cooperative movement in the United States in the twentieth century.