Esther Carmel-Hakim is a lecturer in the Land of Israel Department at the University of Haifa and a regional high school teacher. She received a B.A. from Concordia University in Montreal and an M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Haifa. Her doctoral dissertation title was “Women’s Agricultural Training in the Yishuv, with the Assistance of Jewish Women’s Organizations 1911–1929.” Her specialization is in Jewish women’s Zionist organizations and women on the kibbutz.